CHAPTER 89FIDUCIARY INCOME TAX[Formerly fiduciary rules ch 48, See IAB 9/30/81][Prior to 12/17/86, Revenue Department[730]]701—89.1(422)  Administration.    89.1(1)    Definitions.  The following definitions cover 701—Chapter 89 and are in addition to the definitions contained in Iowa Code section 422.4.
"Administrator" means the administrator of the compliance division of the department of revenue or the personal representative of an intestate estate.
"Compliance division" is the organizational unit of the department created by the director to administer the inheritance and fiduciary income tax laws.
"Department" means the department of revenue.
"Director" means the director of revenue.
"Gross income" includes any and all income prior to any deductions as set forth on the Iowa fiduciary return of income.
"Personal representative" means the executor, administrator or trustee of a decedent’s estate.
"Tax" means the income tax imposed on estates and trusts under Iowa Code section 422.6.
"Taxable income" is the income of the fiduciary and also includes distributions to beneficiaries as set forth on the Iowa fiduciary return of income.
"Taxpayer" means the executor, administrator or other personal representative of a decedent’s estate required to file a return for the estate and the decedent under Iowa Code sections 422.14 and 422.23. “Taxpayer” also means the trustee of a trust subject to tax under 26 U.S.C. Section 641 and required to file a return under 26 U.S.C. Section 6012(b), as well as the trustee of the bankruptcy estate of an individual under Chapter 7 or 11 of Title 11 of the United States Code.
  89.1(2)    Delegation of authority.  The director delegates to the administrator of the compliance division, subject always to the supervision and review of the director, the authority to administer the fiduciary income tax. This authority specifically includes, but is not limited to: determining the correct fiduciary income tax liability; making tax liability assessments; issuing refunds; releasing tax liens; filing tax liability claims in probated estates and releasing the claims upon payment of the tax; and issuing the certificate of acquittance authorized by Iowa Code section 422.27. The administrator of the compliance division may delegate the examination and audit of tax returns to the supervisors, agents and employees and representatives of the department.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code sections 421.2, 421.4, 422.6, 422.23, 422.25, 422.26, 422.27 and 422.73.
Related ARC(s): 1545C701—89.2(422)  Confidentiality.    89.2(1)    Confidential information.  The state and federal returns and accompanying schedules, and the taxpayer’s books, records, documents and accounts of any person, firm or corporation are held confidential, except the information which is deemed a public record by state and federal law. See 26 U.S.C. Section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code pertaining to the confidentiality and disclosure of federal tax returns and federal tax return information. See rules 701—6.3(17A) and 701—38.6(422) regarding the confidentiality of a decedent’s individual income tax returns.  89.2(2)    Information not confidential.  Copies of wills, probate inventories, trust instruments, deeds and other documents which are filed for public record are not confidential. The fact alone that a return has or has not been filed with the department is not confidential information. 1976 Op.Att’y.Gen.679.  89.2(3)    Documents to be filed.    a.    Estates of Iowa decedents.  A copy of the inheritance tax return and probate inventory required by Iowa Code section 633.361 and 701—subrule 86.2(2) (relating to inheritance tax) and a copy of the decedent’s will in testate estates shall be filed with the first fiduciary return of income, unless previously filed with the department for inheritance tax purposes.  b.    Nonresident decedents—ancillary administration.  If ancillary administration has been opened for the estate of a nonresident decedent, a copy of the inheritance tax return and probate inventory and a copy of the decedent’s will in testate estates shall be filed with the department, subject to the same conditions and requirements in estates of resident decedents. If ancillary administration has not been opened for a nonresident decedent with Iowa taxable income, a copy of the inventory filed in the primary estate, or the portion of the inventory listing the property generating the Iowa income and the decedent’s will in testate estates, must be filed with the department with the first fiduciary return of income.  c.    Inter vivos trusts.  Inter vivos trusts with a situs in Iowa and inter vivos trusts with a situs outside Iowa with Iowa taxable income shall submit to the department with the first fiduciary return the following: (1) a copy of the trust instrument; (2) a list of the trust assets (those generating Iowa taxable income in case of trusts with a situs outside Iowa); and (3) an estimate of the fair market value of each asset. If the trust instrument is amended or additional assets are added to the trust corpus (additional assets which generate Iowa taxable income in case of trusts with a situs outside Iowa), a copy of the amended items must be submitted to the department with the first fiduciary return of income following the change.  d.    Testamentary trusts.  If the estate was not reported for inheritance tax purposes, a copy of the decedent’s will and a list of assets in the trust corpus in testamentary trusts with a situs both within and without Iowa must be submitted to the department with the first fiduciary return of income.  e.    Safe deposit box.  Effective July 1, 1998, there is no longer a requirement for safe deposit boxes to be inventoried and reported to the department prior to the delivery of the assets to the personal representative, transferee, joint owner or beneficiary.  89.2(4)    Required records.  The taxpayer shall keep records and accounts necessary to substantiate reportable income and deductions. Upon request, the taxpayer shall furnish the department documents, such as copies of tax returns, court orders, trust instruments, annual reports, canceled checks and like information, as may be reasonably necessary to enable the department to determine the correct tax liability. Tiffany v.County Board of Review, 188 N.W.2d 343, 349 (Iowa 1971). For taxpayers using an electronic data interchange process or technology also see 701—subrule 11.4(4).This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code sections 422.25, 422.27, 422.28, 422.73 and 1997 Iowa Acts, chapter 60, sections 1 and 2.701—89.3(422)  Situs of trusts.    89.3(1)    Testamentary trusts.  The situs of a testamentary trust for tax purposes is the state of the decedent’s residence at the time of death until the jurisdiction of the court in which the trust proceedings are pending is terminated. In the event of termination and the trust remains open, the situs of the trust is governed by the same rules as pertain to the situs of inter vivos trusts.  89.3(2)    Inter vivos trusts.  If an inter vivos trust is created by order of court or makes an accounting to the court, its situs is the state where the court having jurisdiction is located until the jurisdiction is terminated. The situs of an inter vivos trust which is subject to the grantor trust rules under 26 U.S.C. Sections 671 to 679 is the state of the grantor’s residence, or the state of residence of the person other than the grantor deemed the owner, to the extent the income of the trust is governed by the grantor trust rules.If an inter vivos trust (other than a trust subject to the grantor trust rules in 26 U.S.C. Sections 671 to 679) is not required to make an accounting to and is not subject to the control of a court, its situs depends on the relevant facts of each case. The relevant facts include, but are not limited to: the residence of the trustees or a majority of them; the location of the principal office where the trust is administered; and the location of the evidence of the intangible assets of the trust (such as stocks, bonds, bank accounts, etc.). The residence of the grantor of a trust, not subject to the grantor trust rules under 26 U.S.C. Sections 671 to 679, is not a controlling factor as to the situs of the trust, unless the person is also a trustee. A statement in the trust instrument that the law of a certain jurisdiction shall govern the administration of the trust is not a controlling factor in determining situs. The residence of the beneficiaries of a trust is also not relevant in determining situs.  89.3(3)    Part-year trust.  A trust that has its situs part of the year within Iowa and part of the same year outside of Iowa is to report its income on Iowa Form IA-1041. Essentially, to report the income, the trust will be treated similarly to a nonresident or part-year resident for Iowa income tax purposes. To complete the return, the trust should complete page one of Form IA-1041, the income and deductions portions of the form. The income and deductions reported in these two portions of the form should include all the trust’s income reported during the tax year. After the previous computation has been completed, then Schedule C of Form IA-1041 is completed to determine a nonresident/part-year resident credit similar to the calculation set forth in rule 701—42.5(422) for individual income tax.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code sections 422.6, 422.8, and 422.14.Related ARC(s): 0398C701—89.4(422)  Fiduciary returns and payment of the tax.    89.4(1)    Form of return.  The form of the fiduciary return shall be prescribed by the director. It shall conform as nearly as possible to the federal fiduciary return.  89.4(2)    Required federal returns and schedules.  Nonresident estates with Iowa taxable income and trusts with situs outside Iowa with Iowa taxable income must submit a copy of the federal fiduciary return with the Iowa return. Estates of Iowa decedents and trusts with a situs in Iowa must submit copies of the federal schedules that substantiate gross income, deductions and ordinary and throwback distributions to beneficiaries with the Iowa return.  89.4(3)    Same form for nonresident estates and foreign situs trusts.  Nonresident estates and foreign situs trusts shall use the same form for reporting Iowa taxable income as prescribed for resident estates and trusts with a situs in Iowa.  89.4(4)    Accounting period—tax year.  The initial fiduciary return may reflect either a calendar or fiscal year accounting period, without the department’s prior approval. If a fiscal year is elected, it may end on the last day of any month, except December, but in no case shall the fiscal year adopted be for a period longer than the last day of the month preceding the decedent’s death or the month the trust was created. The accounting period for the purpose of the tax imposed by Iowa Code section 422.6 must be the same accounting period that is adopted for federal income tax purposes. This limitation is equally applicable to estates of resident and nonresident decedents and trusts with a situs within and without Iowa. If the taxpayer has not adopted a taxable year prior to the time the return is due to be filed and the tax paid, the taxable year is a calendar year until authorization is granted to change to a fiscal year. See 26 U.S.C. Sections 441 to 443, federal regulations Sections 1.441 - 1(g)(3) and 1.442.2.The permissible taxable years are illustrated by the following examples:Example 1. Decedent died July 4, 1990. The taxable year for the estate commences the day after the decedent’s death (July 5, 1990) and will end December 31, 1990, if a calendar year is adopted as the taxable year. If a fiscal year is adopted, it can end on July 31, 1990, or the last day of any future month (except December 31, 1990), but no later than June 30, 1991, subject to the condition that it is selected prior to the time the return and payment are originally due.Example 2. Grantor creates an irrevocable trust on July 27, 1989. On July 1, 1990, the trustee filed the initial fiduciary return of income, adopting at that time a taxable year ending November 30, 1989. Since the return was due March 17, 1990 (March 15 was a Saturday) for federal income tax purposes and March 31, 1990, for Iowa income tax purposes, it is delinquent and a fiscal year accounting period is disallowed and the trust taxable year is the calendar year.  89.4(5)    Short year returns.  If an estate or trust is in existence only a portion of the taxable year, a return must be filed for the partial year in accordance with subrule 89.4(6).  89.4(6)    Minimum filing requirements.    a.    General rule.  A fiduciary return of income must be filed if the gross income of the estate or trust for the taxable year is $600 or more, regardless of any tax liability.  b.    Exception to the general rule.  A final fiduciary return of income must be filed for the taxable year in which an estate or trust is closed, regardless of the amount of gross income, if an income tax certificate of acquittance is requested. The final fiduciary return of income constitutes an application for an income tax certificate of acquittance pursuant to Iowa Code sections 422.27, 633.477 and 633.479. For a certificate of acquittance to be received, the appropriate box on the final fiduciary return must be checked to request the certificate.  89.4(7)    Amended returns.  An amended return must be filed if there is a change in income or deductions that results in a tax or additional tax due, or in a change in income, deductions or credits distributable to a beneficiary. An amended return may be filed in lieu of a claim for refund when a change in reportable income or deductions results in a tax overpayment. See 701—subrules 43.3(8) and 43.3(15) for the period of time for making a claim for a refund of excess tax paid.  89.4(8)    Return due date.  The fiduciary return must be filed with the department and the tax due paid in full on or before the last day of the fourth month following the end of the taxable year. Payment of 90 percent of the tax due with the filing of a return will grant a taxpayer a six-month automatic extension of time to pay the remaining tax due. If the due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the due date is the next day which is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday as defined in Iowa Code section 4.1. Returns not timely filed with 90 percent of the tax timely paid are subject to penalty as provided in rule 89.6(422).  89.4(9)    Duties of the taxpayer.    a.    Income of the estate or trust.  A taxpayer must timely file a fiduciary return if the minimum filing requirements specified in subrule 89.4(6) are met and must pay 90 percent of the tax due. Receipt of the return with 90 percent of the tax due paid will result in an automatic six-month extension of time to pay the remaining tax due. The department is not required to file a claim for taxes in the estate proceedings and have the claim allowed before the tax is paid. In re Estate of Oelwein, 217 Iowa 1137, 1141, 251 N.W. 694 (1933); Findley v.Taylor, 97 Iowa 420, 66 N.W. 744 (1896). The personal representative of an estate must pay the tax on income from property in the personal representative’s possession, prior to applying the income to estate obligations. See Iowa Code section 633.352.  b.    Decedent’s final individual income tax return.  The executor, administrator, or other personal representative of the decedent’s estate must file an individual income tax return for the decedent for the year of the decedent’s death if the gross income attributable to the decedent for the part of the taxable year ending with death equals or exceeds the minimum filing requirements. See 701—subrules 39.1(1) to 39.1(3) and 39.1(5) for the minimum filing requirements for individual income tax. If the surviving spouse of a decedent has not remarried during the balance of the taxable year and has the same taxable year as the decedent, the personal representative of the decedent’s estate may file a joint return with the surviving spouse for the taxable year of death. In the event of such an election, the joint return must include the surviving spouse’s income for the entire taxable year and the decedent’s income for the portion of the taxable year ending with death. Income attributable to property owned by the decedent and the decedent’s rights to income received after the day of the decedent’s death are income of the decedent’s estate or the persons succeeding to the property or rights to income. See Iowa Code sections 633.350 to 633.353 for the circumstances under which the estate is charged with the income from the decedent’s property or the decedent’s rights to income. Income from property held by the decedent and others in joint tenancy received after the decedent’s death is charged to the surviving joint tenants, not to the decedent’s estate.The final return for a decedent may be filed at any time after the decedent’s death, but in no event later than the last day of the fourth month following the end of the decedent’s normal taxable year. The final income tax return of the decedent, if the minimum filing requirements are met, must be filed prior to the time an income tax certificate of acquittance is requested, even though this may require the early filing of the return. Therefore, filing a joint return with the surviving spouse is precluded if the decedent’s final return is required to be filed prior to the end of the normal taxable year.  c.    Decedent’s prior year returns.  The personal representative of the decedent’s estate is not limited to filing the decedent’s final return and paying the tax due. In addition, the personal representative has the duty to file a return, if none was filed, and to pay any additional income tax owed by the decedent that may become due by reason of an audit of the decedent’s income or prior year returns. The personal representative’s duty to pay the tax, or additional tax, is limited to the probate property subject to the jurisdiction of the court. The probate property must be applied to the payment of the decedent’s tax liability according to the order for paying debts and charges specified in Iowa Code section 633.425.  d.    Withholding agent—general rule.  The personal representative of a decedent’s estate and the trustee of a trust shall withhold Iowa income tax from a distribution of Iowa taxable income to beneficiaries who are nonresidents of Iowa. This withholding requirement applies to both Iowa and non-Iowa situs estates and trusts. See Iowa Code subsection 422.16(12) and 701—subrule 46.4(2), item “5,” for the duty to withhold. The amount of income tax to be withheld shall be computed either based on 5 percent of the taxable Iowa income distributed or according to tax tables provided by the department. See 701—subrule 46.3(3) for the required withholding form and return to be filed with the department.  e.    Exception to the general rule.  If a nonresident beneficiary of an estate or trust who is to receive a distribution of Iowa taxable income files with the department a nonresident declaration of estimated tax and pays the estimated tax on the income declared in full, 89.4(9)“d” does not apply to the amount of the income declared. A certificate of release from the duty to withhold will be issued to the withholding agent upon request. See Iowa Code sections 422.16(12) and 422.17 and 701—subrule 46.4(3) relating to the release certificate. In addition, an estimated payment of withholding can occur if a distribution is being made to a taxable beneficiary. An estimated payment of withholding should be based on 5 percent of the taxable Iowa income. It is the department’s policy to allow estimated payments of withholding to be paid directly to the department.  f.    Withholding not required.  Withholding is not required from the distribution made by estates and trusts of Iowa taxable income to beneficiaries who are residents of Iowa.  g.    Beneficiary’s share of income, deductions and credits.  After the final distribution of income for the taxable year, but prior to the date for filing a beneficiary’s individual income tax return, the personal representative of an estate and the trustee of a trust shall furnish each beneficiary receiving a distribution from an estate or trust a written statement specifying the amount and types of income subject to Iowa tax and the kinds and amounts of the deductions and credits against the tax. A copy of the federal schedule K-1, Form 1041, adapted to reflect Iowa taxable income, may be substituted in lieu of the statement.  h.    Liability of a withholding agent.  A withholding agent is personally liable for the amount of the tax required to be withheld under Iowa Code subsection 422.16(12) if the income tax liability of a nonresident beneficiary which is attributable to the distribution is not paid and, in addition, is personally liable for any penalty and interest due if the tax required to be withheld is not paid to the department within the time prescribed by law. See rules 701—44.1(422) to 44.4(422) for the application and computation of penalty and interest on income tax required to be withheld.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code sections 422.6, 422.8, 422.16, 422.21, 422.23, 422.25, 422.27, 633.352 and 633.425.701—89.5(422)  Extension of time to file and pay the tax.    89.5(1)    Automatic extension of time to file.    a.    For tax years beginning on or after January 1, 1986.  An automatic two-month extension of time to file the fiduciary income tax return will be granted by the department if the requirements set out in subparagraphs (1) and (2) are met.  (1)  Filing the extension application on or before the due date of the return. See subrule 89.4(8) for what constitutes timely filing.  (2)  Payment of at least 90 percent of the tax by the due date. At least 90 percent of the tax required to be shown due must have been paid on or before the due date of the return. To determine whether or not 90 percent of the tax was “paid” on or before the due date, the aggregate amounts of tax credits applicable to the return plus the tax payments which were made on or before the due date are divided by the tax required to be shown due on the return. If the aggregate of the tax credits and the tax payments is equal to or greater than 90 percent of the tax required to be shown due, the taxpayer will have met the “90 percent” test and no penalty will be assessed.If the time for filing is extended, interest as provided by law, from the date the return originally was required to be filed to the date of actual payment of the tax, is to be computed on the unpaid tax. See rule 701—10.2(421) for the statutory rate of interest commencing on or after January 1, 1982.  b.    For tax years beginning on or after January 1, 1991.  See 701—subrule 39.2(4).  89.5(2)    Additional extension of time to file beyond the automatic extension.  For tax years beginning on or after January 1, 1986. The department may grant an additional extension of time to file the fiduciary return, not to exceed four months, provided an application for additional time is filed prior to the expiration of the automatic extension of time.  89.5(3)    Extension of time for the decedent’s final tax return.  701—subrule 39.2(4) which provides for extensions of time to file individual income tax returns will apply to the decedent’s final tax return.  89.5(4)    Form of application and place of filing.  The application for an extension of time to file the fiduciary income tax return must be made on forms prescribed by the director. The application must be filed with the department prior to the date the return is due, directed to the Compliance Division, Examination Section, P.O. Box 10456, Des Moines, Iowa 50306.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code section 422.21.701—89.6(422)  Penalties.  See rule 701—10.6(421) for the calculation of penalty for tax periods beginning on or after January 1, 1991.Related ARC(s): 7761B701—89.7(422)  Interest or refunds on net operating loss carrybacks.    89.7(1)    Interest on unpaid tax.  Tax not paid within the time prescribed by law, including the period during an extension of time, draws interest at the rate described in rule 701—10.2(421). Payments made are first credited to penalty and interest due and then to the tax liability. See Ashland Oil Co. v. Iowa Department of Revenue and Finance, 452 N.W.2d 162 (Iowa 1990).  89.7(2)    Interest on refunds and tax paid prior to due date.  For the purpose of determining the time interest begins to accrue, all income tax withheld, estimated tax paid and other tax paid prior to the due date shall be deemed to be paid on the last day the return is required to be filed disregarding any extensions of time to file the return and pay the tax.  89.7(3)    Interest on a net operating loss carryback—the second calendar month period—on or after April 30, 1981.  For net operating losses occurring in any of the taxable years ending on or after April 30, 1981, interest accrues on excess tax paid in a prior year, if the loss is carried back to such year, only after the close of the taxable year in which the loss occurs or on the first day of the second calendar month following the date the tax to be refunded was paid, whichever time is later.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code section 422.25.Related ARC(s): 7761B701—89.8(422)  Reportable income and deductions.    89.8(1)    Application of the Internal Revenue Code.  Iowa Code section 422.4(16) provides that taxable income of estates and trusts for Iowa income tax purposes is the same as taxable income for federal income tax purposes, subject to certain adjustments specified in Iowa Code sections 422.7 and 422.9. Therefore, the Internal Revenue Code is also Iowa law insofar as it relates to what constitutes gross income, allowable deductions and distributions, subject to the adjustments specified above. See First National Bank of Ottumwa v.Bair, 252 N.W.2d 723 (Iowa 1977).For purposes of a distribution deduction under this chapter, an estate or trust shall receive a distribution deduction only for income taxable to Iowa. For example, municipal interest will be included in the distribution deduction because it is taxable to Iowa. U.S. government interest would not be included because it is not taxable to Iowa.For tax years ending after August 5, 1997, if the trust is a qualified preneed funeral trust as set forth in Section 685 of the Internal Revenue Code and the trustee has elected the special tax treatment under Section 685 of the Internal Revenue Code, neither the trust nor the beneficiary is subject to Iowa income tax on income accruing to the trust.  89.8(2)    Authority of federal court cases, regulations and rulings.  The director has the responsibility to enforce and interpret the law relating to the taxes the department is obligated to administer, including those portions of the Internal Revenue Code which are Iowa law under Iowa Code section 422.4(16). Federal regulations may be interpreted by Iowa courts for state tax purposes. In re Estate of Louden, 249 Iowa 1393, 1396, 92 N.W.2d 409 (1958). However, the construction of statutes by a court of the jurisdiction where the statute originated properly commands consideration and is highly persuasive. Eddy v.Short, 190 Iowa 1376, 1383, 179 N.W. 818 (1920), In re Estate of Millard, 251 Iowa 1282, 1292, 105 N.W.2d 95 (1960). Therefore, while federal court cases, regulations and rulings interpreting the Internal Revenue Code will be accorded every consideration, the department has the right to make its own interpretation of the Internal Revenue Code as to what constitutes taxable income for Iowa tax purposes, consistent with Iowa statutes and court decisions. Also see rule 701—41.2(422).  89.8(3)    Reportable income in general—Iowa estates and trusts.  Estates of Iowa resident decedents and trusts with a situs in Iowa must report all income received from sources within and without Iowa, regardless of whether the income is from real, personal, tangible or intangible property. See 89.8(11)“b” for the credit allowable against the Iowa tax for income tax paid to another state or country on income reported to Iowa for taxation.  89.8(4)    Reportable income in general—foreign situs estates and trusts.  Estates and trusts with a situs outside Iowa must report all income received from sources within and without Iowa, regardless of whether the income is from real, personal, tangible or intangible property. Foreign situs estates and trusts must also report that portion of the income which is from Iowa sources. Examples of Iowa source income include, but are not limited to: income from real and tangible personal property with a situs in Iowa, such as a farm and from a business located in Iowa; the capital gain portion of an installment sale contract of Iowa situs property; and wages, salaries and other compensation for services performed in Iowa, but received after the death of the decedent. Iowa source income would not include income from intangible personal property, such as annuities, interest on bank deposits, and dividends, unless the income was derived from a business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in Iowa. See paragraph 89.8(11)“d” for the credit allowed a foreign situs estate and trust for income earned outside Iowa.  89.8(5)    Income from property subject to the jurisdiction of the probate court.    a.    Probate property subject to possession by the personal representative.  Income received on probate property after the decedent’s death is chargeable to the estate or to the person succeeding to the decedent’s property depending on whether the personal representative has the right to, or has taken possession of, the probate property producing the income. (Rev.Ruling 57-133, 1-CB 200 (1957).) If the personal representative has taken possession of or has the right to possession of a specific item of probate property, the income from this property is estate income, even though the personal representative is bound by law to distribute the income during the course of administration to a beneficiary. Colthurst v.Colthurst, 265 N.W.2d 590 (Iowa 1978); In re Estate of Herring, 265 N.W.2d 740 (Iowa 1978). The personal representative is charged with the income from this property for each taxable year until the property is distributed or otherwise disposed of. Iowa Code section 633.351 (probate code) specifies the personal representative shall take possession of the decedent’s personal property, except exempt property, and also the decedent’s real estate, except the homestead, if any one of the following conditions are met: if there is no distributee present and competent to take possession; if the real estate is subject to a lease; or if the distributee is present and competent and gives consent to possession. Colthurst v.Colthurst, 265 N.W.2d 590 (Iowa 1978); In re Estate of Peterson, 263 N.W.2d 555 (Iowa Ct.of Appeals 1977). In addition, Iowa Code section 633.386 (probate code) gives the personal representative authority to lease real estate (and therefore to take possession) in order to pay the debts and charges of the estate.  b.    Income charged to the heir or beneficiary.  Under Iowa law title to probate property, both real and personal, passes instantaneously on death to the heir or beneficiary. In re Estate of Bliven, 236 N.W.2d 366, 370 (Iowa 1975). If property is not subject to the personal representative’s right of possession under Iowa Code section 633.351 (probate code) and the personal representative has not exercised the right to sell, lease, mortgage or pledge real and personal property to pay debts and charges under Iowa Code section 633.386 (probate code), the income from this probate property is not estate income. It is income to the person succeeding to the property.  89.8(6)    Income from nonprobate property.  Income from property not subject to the jurisdiction of the probate court is charged to the beneficiary or other person succeeding to the property. Examples of income from nonprobate property include, but are not limited to: property held in joint tenancy, annuity payments, pension and retirement plans not payable to the estate, and income from certain trusts created by the grantor-decedent. See Wood, Admr., v.Logue, 167 Iowa 436, 441, 149 N.W. 613 (1914) for joint tenancy property not being subject to the jurisdiction of the probate court; also Lang v.Commissioner, 289 U.S. 109, 77 L.Ed.1066, 53 S.Ct.535 (1933).  89.8(7)    Gross income of an estate.    a.    In general.  26 U.S.C. Section 641(b) provides that the taxable income of an estate or trust shall be computed in the same manner as the taxable income of an individual, except as modified in Subchapter J of the Internal Revenue Code. The gross income of an individual and, therefore, the gross income of an estate or trust, is not given a definitive meaning in 26 U.S.C. Section 641. Subrule 89.8(7), paragraphs “d” to “q,” describe the most common kinds of income of an estate or trust. However, those paragraphs are not intended to identify all types of taxable income.  b.    Definition of the period of administration.  The income charged to the decedent’s estate is reportable by the personal representative for each taxable year during the period of the administration of the decedent’s estate, if the minimum filing requirements are met. The period of administration for Iowa income tax purposes is determined by applying federal tax law to Iowa estates because Iowa taxable income is the same as federal taxable income, subject to the adjustments provided in Iowa Code sections 422.7 and 422.9. Old Virginia Brick Co., Inc.v.Commissioner, 367 F.2d 276 (4th CA 1966); First National Bank of Ottumwa v.Bair, 252 N.W.2d 723 (Iowa 1977). It is the period actually required by the personal representative to perform the ordinary duties of administration, such as the collection of assets and the payment of debts, taxes, legacies and bequests, whether the period required is longer or shorter than the period specified under the probate code. See federal regulations 1.641(b)-3(a). An estate will be considered terminated for income tax purposes when all of the assets have been distributed, except for a reasonable amount set aside in good faith for the payment of unascertained or contingent liabilities and expenses. The delay in closing the estate cannot be capricious. Frederich v.Commissioner, 147 F.2d 796 (5th CA 1944). If the period of administration is terminated for income tax purposes, the heir or beneficiary is charged with the income.  c.    The estate’s first return—special considerations.  Death terminates the decedent’s taxable year. Income received the day of the decedent’s death is to be reported on the decedent’s final individual return. See 26 U.S.C. 443(a)(2); federal regulation Section 1.443-1(a)(1).The taxable year of a decedent’s estate begins the day after the decedent’s death. Income received after the decedent’s death is either chargeable to the decedent’s estate or to the person succeeding to the property producing the income. See 89.8(5)“a” and 89.8(5)“b.” Income the decedent had a right to receive prior to death, but did not receive before death, is not the decedent’s income, but is income in respect of a decedent and is chargeable either to the decedent’s estate when received or to the person succeeding to the right to income. See 26 U.S.C. Section 691(a) and applicable federal regulations on what constitutes income in respect of a decedent. Trade or business expenses, interest, taxes and expenses for the production of income owing by the decedent at death, but unpaid, and the allowance for depletion on income not received at death, are not deductible on the decedent’s final return. These are deductible by the estate or the person succeeding to the property when paid. Medical expenses incurred by the decedent, but unpaid at death, are not deductible by the estate. These are deductible on the decedent’s individual return for the year the expenses were incurred, if paid within one year after the decedent’s death and if the medical expense is not claimed as a deduction for federal estate tax purposes under 26 U.S.C. Section 2053. See 26 U.S.C. Section 213(d) and federal regulations thereunder relating to deductible medical expense of a decedent. Funeral expense is not a deductible item for income tax purposes, although it is a deductible expense for federal estate tax and Iowa inheritance tax purposes. See 701—paragraphs 86.6(1)“g” and 86.6(3)“b.” Unused ordinary and capital losses remaining after the decedent’s income tax liability for the year of death has been determined are not carried forward to the decedent’s estate. The unused losses terminate with death, except to the extent they may be used by the decedent’s surviving spouse. See Rev.Ruling 74-175, 1 CB 52 (1974). The estate of a decedent is a different taxpayer than the decedent.  d.    Dividends.  All income classified as dividends under 26 U.S.C. Section 61 and federal regulation section 1.61-9, received or constructually received, during the taxable year constitutes gross income to the estate or trust. However, some income labeled as dividends is for tax purposes classified as interest. For example, income from cooperative banks, credit unions, domestic building and loan associations, domestic savings and loan associations, federal savings and loan associations and mutual savings banks are considered interest and not dividends.  e.    Interest.  All interest received or constructually received during the taxable year, with the exception of interest, but not capital gain, from federal securities and from certain bonds issued by the state of Iowa and its political subdivisions listed in rule 701—40.3(422) is income to the estate or trust. Interest from securities issued by a state and its political subdivisions or from foreign securities is included in gross income for Iowa tax purposes, even though the interest may be exempt from federal income tax, except for those bonds listed in rule 701—40.3(422).  f.    Partnerships and other estates and trusts.  If a partnership in which the decedent had an interest is not terminated at death, the deceased partner’s share of the partnership income is considered to be all received at the end of the partnership taxable year. As a result, none of the partnership income is chargeable to the deceased partner, unless the day of the partner’s death coincides with the day the partnership year ends. It is chargeable to the deceased partner’s estate or the person succeeding to the partner’s interest, notwithstanding the fact the deceased partner may have withdrawn most or all of the deceased partner’s share of the partnership income prior to death. Federal regulation section 1.706-1(C)(3)(ii); Rev.Ruling 68-215, 18 I.R.B. 14 (1968).In general, if an estate or trust and its beneficiaries have different taxable years, the beneficiary is required to report the income from the estate or trust as if it were all paid on the last day of the taxable year of the estate or trust. Federal regulation section 1.662(C)-1. Hay v.U.S., 263 F. Supp. 813 (D.C. Tex.1967). However, if the beneficiary dies during the taxable year of an estate or trust, the taxable income of the beneficiary’s estate includes only the portion of the income of the other estate or trust which was required to be distributed to the beneficiary, but was not in fact distributed to the beneficiary before death. The income that was in fact distributed by the other estate or trust prior to the beneficiary’s death is properly included in the beneficiary’s final income tax return. See federal regulation 1.662(C)-2.  g.    Rents and royalties.  Income received after death for the use or occupancy of the decedent’s real and personal property is the income of the decedent’s estate or the income of the person succeeding to the property. See 89.8(5)“a” and 89.8(5)“b.” If the rental income was accrued, but unpaid at death, the accrued rent is income in respect of a decedent and is to be included as income, either by the estate or the person succeeding to the right to the income, in the taxable year when payment is received. Rent is not limited to payments in cash. It includes, but is not limited to, crop share rental payments when the decedent was a nonparticipating landlord. Alvin R. Huldeen Estate v.Department of Revenue, Sac County District Court, Probate No.14,661 (1975). Income from the sale of grain and livestock in the estate of a participating landlord which was on hand at death is classified as income from a farm or business and not rental income.Income from royalties would include, but is not limited to, payment for rights in books, plays, copyrights, trademarks, formulas, patents and from the exploitation of natural resources.  h.    Farm and business income—in general.  The death of the decedent does not alter the rules under which business and farm income is computed for income tax purposes. However, the decedent’s estate as a new taxpayer may adopt a taxable year which is different from the decedent’s taxable year. Also, the decedent’s estate may adopt a different accounting method. The rules for determining a gain or loss from the sale or exchange of assets in the decedent’s estate are the same as those for an individual. However, see 89.8(7)“i” and 89.8(7)“j” for the basis for gain or loss from the sale or exchange of property acquired from a decedent and 89.8(7)“l” for depreciation rules for property acquired from a decedent.  i.    Basis for gain or loss—the stepped-up basis.  Property acquired from a decedent receives a new basis for determining gain or loss when the property is sold or exchanged. This rule does not apply to property which is classified as income in respect of a decedent and certain other property designated in 26 U.S.C. Section 1014(b) and (c) and the federal regulations thereunder. The basis of property acquired from a decedent is either: (1) its fair market value at the time of death or the alternative value when it has been elected for federal estate tax purposes under 26 U.S.C. Section 2032, or (2) its special use value when the property has been valued for federal estate tax purposes under 26 U.S.C. Section 2032A. The decedent’s basis in the property is not relevant.If an estate files a federal estate tax return, then the basis is governed by the federal estate tax value determination. However, if an estate does not file a federal estate tax return, then Iowa inheritance tax valuation governs the basis for the property that is acquired.Example 1. Decedent A died July 1, 1995, owning a 160-acre Iowa farm which the decedent purchased in 1955 for $200 per acre, or $32,000. At the time of A’s death, the farm had a fair market value of $2,000 per acre, or $320,000. In 1965, A and surviving spouse B purchased a residence for $35,000 in joint tenancy. Surviving spouse B, a school teacher, contributed one half of the purchase price of the residence; therefore, one-half of the residence is excluded from A’s gross estate. At the time of A’s death, the residence had a fair market value of $100,000. Surviving spouse B received the entire estate and did not elect the alternative or special use valuation.B’s basis for gain or loss in the farm and residence is computed as follows:AssetFair MarketValue at DeathNew Basis for Gain or Loss160-acre farm$320,000$320,000Residence 100,000½ new basis50,000½ old basis 17,500$ 67,500Since the entire farm was acquired from A, its basis is 100 percent of the fair market value at death. Only one-half of the residence was acquired from A; therefore, only one half of the residence receives a new basis on A’s death.  j.    No new basis—income in respect of a decedent.  Property or rights to income, classified as income in respect of a decedent under 26 U.S.C. Section 691, do not receive a new basis upon the decedent’s death. It is a special exception to the stepped-up basis rule. See 26 U.S.C. Section 1014(c) and federal regulation section 1.1014-1(c).Examples of income in respect of a decedent include, but are not limited to, the following:
  1. Wages, salary or other compensation for personal services earned which are unpaid at death.
  2. Interest accrued on obligations, such as bank accounts, certificates of deposit, bonds and promissory notes.
  3. Accrued interest and unpaid capital gain on real and personal property installment contracts.
  4. Federal income tax refunds, if claimed as a deduction on an Iowa income tax return.
  5. Accounts receivable, if the decedent was on a cash accounting basis.
  6. Crop share rent if the decedent was a nonparticipating landlord on a cash basis. This also includes growing crops, which are to be valued at the time of the decedent’s death or alternate valuation date.
The basis for gain or loss for property classified as income in respect of a decedent is the decedent’s basis in the property at the time of death.
  k.    Gain or loss—holding period.  For the purpose of determining whether the sale or exchange of property is a long- or short-term gain or loss, the holding period of property acquired from a decedent begins the day after the decedent’s death, regardless of how long the property was held by the decedent. See 26 U.S.C. Section 1.1223, federal regulation Section 1.1223-1(j). However, if the property acquired from a decedent is sold or otherwise disposed of within one year of the decedent’s death, it will be considered to have been held over one year. In general, this is a sufficiently long holding period to qualify the sale or exchange as a long-term gain or loss transaction. However, a one-year holding period does not qualify horses and cattle held for draft, breeding or dairy purposes for long-term gain or loss treatment. A 24-month holding period is required by 26 U.S.C. Section 1231(b)(3) for the transaction to be considered long-term.Therefore, if this kind of livestock is acquired from a decedent (which is usually the case) and is sold or exchanged within 24 months after the decedent’s death, the sale is considered a short-term transaction. See Rev.Ruling 75-361, 2 C.B. 344 (1975). However, even if the sale or exchange results in a short-term gain or loss transaction, the property has a stepped-up basis, because it is acquired from a decedent. See 89.8(7)“i.”  l.    Depreciation—property acquired from a decedent.  Property acquired from a decedent which is subject to the allowance for depreciation, receives the same value for depreciation purposes as its basis for gain or loss in a sale or exchange, regardless of its basis or remaining useful life in the hands of the decedent. See 26 U.S.C. Sections 167(g) and 1011; federal regulation Section 1.167(g)-1. For the purpose of determining the life of an asset subject to the allowance for depreciation, the property is treated as if it were acquired the day after the decedent’s death. See federal regulation Section 1.167(a)-10. The decedent’s estate or other person acquiring depreciable property from the decedent may adopt a depreciation method different from that used by the decedent for the depreciable asset. See federal regulation section 1.167(a)-7.  m.    Section 641(c) gain for sales or exchanges before August 6, 1997.  The gain that is excluded from federal taxable income under 26 U.S.C. Section 641(c) for sales or exchanges before August 6, 1997, constitutes Iowa gross income to the estate or trust. This gain for sales or exchanges before August 6, 1997, is excluded from taxable income for federal purposes because it is subject to a special federal tax under 26 U.S.C. Section 644(a). This special federal tax was repealed for sales or exchanges occurring on or after August 6, 1997. The effect is to tax the gain for sales or exchanges before August 6, 1997, which receives separate treatment for federal income tax purposes, in the same manner as this gain was taxed prior to the enactment of the federal Tax Reform Act of 1976.  n.    Nonrecognition of gain—installment sale contracts before October 20, 1980.  No gain or loss is realized by the estate of a decedent-seller dying before October 20, 1980, when the purchaser in an installment sale contract inherits the seller’s rights under the contract of sale. The merger of the asset with the liability is considered to be a nontaxable transfer. Therefore, any unreported gain from the installment sale contract is not subject to income tax when there is a merger of the asset with the liability. See Senate Finance Committee Report to P.L. 96-471.  o.    Recognition of gain—installment sale contracts after October 19, 1980.  Effective for estates of decedents dying after October 19, 1980, Section 3 of Public Law 96-471 (Installment Sales Revision Act of 1980) provides for the recognition of the remaining gain on installment sales contracts when the debtor inherits the obligation and thereby causes a merger of the asset with the liability. The rule after October 19, 1980, is if, as a result of the death of the holder of an installment sale obligation (usually the seller), the installment sale obligation is transferred to the debtor (usually the purchaser); or, if the installment sale obligation is canceled either as a result of the holder’s death or by the personal representative of the holder’s estate, the remaining gain from the installment sale contract not previously reported is recognized by the holder’s estate, as if the remaining balance due had been immediately paid in full. The merger of the asset with the debt is treated as a taxable transfer by the estate of the holder (seller) of the obligation and is income in respect of a decedent realized by the holder’s estate.If the obligation was held by a person other than the seller, such as a trust, the cancellation of the obligation will be treated by that person as a taxable transfer immediately after the seller’s death. In the absence of some act of canceling the obligation, such as by distribution or notation which results in cancellation under Iowa Code chapter 554 (Uniform Commercial Code), the disposition is considered to occur no later than the time the period of administration of the estate is ended. See Senate Committee Report to P.L. 96-471.For gain recognition purposes, if the seller and the debtor were related parties, the value of the installment contract is considered to be not less than full face value, regardless of its value for Iowa inheritance tax or federal estate tax purposes. A related party includes, but is not limited to, the spouse, child (including an adopted child), grandchild, or parent of the seller; an estate in which the seller is a beneficiary; a partnership in which the seller is a partner; a corporation in which the seller owns 50 percent or more of the stock; and a trust where the seller is a beneficiary or is treated as the owner.If the debtor inherits the obligation to pay or another share of the estate, the personal representative of the holder’s estate must set off the contract of sale to the debtor when satisfying the debtor’s share of the estate if the debtor’s share of estate equals or exceeds the face value of the contract. In this case, the entire contract is canceled and all of the unreported gain is income in respect of a decedent to the estate. If the debtor’s share of the estate is less than the face value of the contract of sale, the contract of sale is canceled only to the extent of the debtor’s share of the estate and only a like percentage of the unreported gain is considered income in respect of a decedent received immediately by the estate. See Iowa Code section 633.471 for the right of retainer and setoff. In re Estate of Ferris, 234 Iowa 960, 14 N.W.2d 889 (1944).  p.    Nonresident aliens—sales of Iowa real estate.  For sales and exchanges occurring after June 18, 1980, nonresident aliens and estates and trusts with a situs outside the United States must include the gain from the sale or exchange of Iowa real estate as taxable income, even though the real estate was not effectively connected with a trade or business carried on in the United States. See Public Law 96-499. Any gain paid or distributed to a nonresident alien or an estate or trust with a situs outside the United States is subject to Iowa income tax withholding, unless the gain has been previously accumulated and any tax due paid. See 89.4(9)“d” and 701—subrule 46.4(2), item “5,” for the duty to withhold Iowa income tax from distributions to nonresident beneficiaries and individuals.  q.    Miscellaneous income.  Miscellaneous income is an inclusive term. It includes those items of income that are subject to Iowa income tax under Iowa Code section 422.6 which are not classified as dividends, interest, rent and royalties, income from partnerships and other fiduciaries, business or farm income and gain or loss from the sale or exchange of assets. Examples of miscellaneous income include, but are not limited to: wages and salaries earned by the decedent which are unpaid at death; federal income tax refunds, if the refund was deducted from an Iowa income tax return; and distributions to the estate from an employee’s pension or retirement plan, if subject to Iowa income tax.  r.    Grantor trusts.  If the income of a trust is subject to the grantor trust rules under 26 U.S.C. Sections 671 to 679, the grantor of the trust or other person specified in the trust instrument, and not the trust, is considered the owner of the income. This income is properly reportable on the Iowa individual income tax return of the grantor or other individual treated as the owner. The fiduciary income tax return of a grantor trust is an informational return only. Items of income, deductions and credits of a grantor trust should be reported on a separate statement attached to the fiduciary return of income. See federal regulation Section 1.671-4. The taxable year of a grantor trust must be the same as the taxable year of the grantor, or of the other individual considered the owner of the income for tax purposes. William Scheft, 59 T.C. 428. Examples of grantor trusts are, but not limited to: trusts where the grantor or a nonadverse party has the power to revoke the trust or to return the corpus to the grantor; trusts where the grantor or a nonadverse party has the power to distribute income to or for the benefit of the grantor or the grantor’s spouse; and trusts where the grantor has retained a reversionary interest in the trust, within specified time limits. See federal regulation Section 1.671-1.  s.    “Equity trusts”—assignment of future wages and salaries.  The assignment of future wages, salaries or other compensation for future services by a grantor to a trust (commonly called “equity” or “family estate” trust) does not shift the tax burden on this income from the grantor to the trust. The trust is subject to the grantor trust rules under 26 U.S.C. Sections 671 to 679. The income of the trust is to be reported by the grantor on an Iowa individual income tax return. Lucas v.Earl, 281 U.S. 111, 74 L.Ed.731, 50 S.Ct.241 (1930); Vnuk v.Commissioner, 621 F.2d 1318 (8th CA 1980); Revenue Ruling 75-257, 2 C.B. 251 (1975); In re August Erling, Jr., et al., Director of Revenue decision, Docket No.77-237-2C-A (1979).  t.    Adjustments to federal taxable income.  Iowa Code section 422.4(16) provides that the Iowa taxable income of estates and trusts is federal taxable income, without the deduction for the personal exemption, subject to the specific adjustments set forth in Iowa Code section 422.7 and the modifications relating to federal and state income tax specified in Iowa Code section 422.9. The modifications have these results:  (1)  Federal income tax on the income of Iowa situs estates and trusts is deductible for Iowa income tax purposes in the year paid or accrued depending on the method of accounting.  (2)  Federal income tax owed by Iowa resident decedents at the time of death is a deduction against estate income in the year paid.  (3)  The federal income tax deduction allowable for estates and trusts with a situs outside Iowa is the same as the deduction allowed for an estate or trust with a situs in Iowa.  (4)  Federal income tax owed by a nonresident decedent at the time of death may be deducted the same as a deduction allowed for an Iowa resident decedent. See 701—paragraph 41.3(4)“b” for the federal income tax deduction for nonresident individuals.  (5)  Iowa income tax paid by the estate is not a deduction in computing Iowa taxable income.  (6)  The federal exemption allowed to estates and trusts under 26 U.S.C. Section 642(b), that is, $600 for an estate, $300 for simple trust and $100 for a complex trust, is not deductible for Iowa income tax purposes.  (7)  Interest and dividends from federal securities, but not capital gain or loss, is exempt from Iowa income tax and, therefore, is not part of the Iowa taxable income of estates and trusts.  (8)  Interest and dividends from securities of a state and its political subdivisions and from foreign securities are included in Iowa taxable income in the year received, regardless of whether such interest and dividends are exempt from federal income tax. However, see 701—40.3(422) and 89.8(7)“e” for the exemption for certain bonds issued by the state of Iowa and its political subdivisions which are not included in Iowa taxable income.  (9)  See 89.8(7)“m” for the includability of the gain for sales or exchanges before August 6, 1997, excluded by 26 U.S.C. Section 641(c), in the Iowa taxable income of a trust.  (10)  See 701—paragraph 86.5(12)“b” for the inheritance tax exemption for the portion of an employee’s pension or retirement plan subject to Iowa income tax.
  89.8(8)    Deductions from gross income.    a.    In general.  The deductions allowable in computing taxable income of estates and trusts are generally those relating to a trade or business and the expenses attributable to investment income. The important distinction between the deductions allowable in computing federal adjusted gross income and itemized deductions for individual income tax has only limited application in determining the taxable income of estates and trusts. Many deductions in computing the taxable income of an individual have no application to the deductions allowable in computing the taxable income of an estate or trust, due to the nature of estates and trusts and the sources of their income. For example, medical expense and moving expense deductions are applicable only to individuals, but taxes and interest expense can be incurred by both individuals and estates and trusts. Also the deduction for distribution to beneficiaries has no application to individual income tax.  b.    Interest expense.  Interest paid on obligations secured by property subject to the personal representative or trustee’s right of possession is a deduction from gross income in the year paid. Interest on debts or charges which the personal representative or trustee is obligated to pay is also a deduction against gross income in the year paid. Interest on obligations secured by property, not subject to the personal representative’s right of possession, is not deductible from the gross income of the estate, but is a deduction for the person succeeding to the encumbered property. No distinction is made between business and nonbusiness interest. See Iowa Code section 633.278 (probate code) for circumstances when the personal representative of the decedent’s estate is required to pay the debt and interest on encumbered property, even though the property is not subject to the personal representative’s right of possession. J.S. Dean, 35 T.C. 1083 (1961); Revenue Ruling 57-481, 2 C.B. 48 (1957).  c.    Taxes.  The taxes deductible against the gross income of an estate or trust are limited to the taxes deductible for individual income tax purposes under 26 U.S.C. Section 164, subject to the adjustments specified in Iowa Code section 422.9 relating to federal and state income taxes. Real estate and personal property taxes, including the taxes due, but unpaid at death, are only deductible by the estate on the decedent’s property which is subject to the personal representative’s right of possession. Federal income tax on the income of an estate or trust and federal income tax owing by an Iowa decedent at the time of death, including the federal income tax owing on the decedent’s final return for the year of death, are deductible by the estate or trust in the year paid. For tax years on or after January 1, 1982, the federal income tax deduction attributable to Iowa by nonresidents of Iowa shall be the same deduction as is available for resident taxpayers. See 701—subrule 41.3(4) and Iowa Code section 422.5(1)“j.” Examples of taxes not deductible include, but are not limited to: federal estate tax (except federal estate tax paid on income in respect of a decedent); Iowa income and inheritance tax; federal gift taxes; and special assessments increasing the value of property. See 26 U.S.C. Section 275.  d.    Depreciation and depletion—allocation.  If the personal representative of a decedent’s estate has the right to the possession of property eligible for the depreciation allowance, the depreciation is a deduction from the estate’s gross income when the income for the taxable year is accumulated by the estate. If all or part of the income for the year is distributed to the beneficiaries, the deduction for depreciation is apportioned between the estate and the beneficiaries on the basis of the income allocated to each. In the case of an estate, the deduction for depreciation follows the income.The same depreciation rules apply to simple and complex trusts, with the exception that if the trustee has the right to maintain a reserve for depreciation, and in fact does so, the deduction for depreciation is allocated to the trust to the extent of the reserve maintained, regardless of whether the income is accumulated or distributed. See 26 U.S.C. Section 167, federal regulation 1.167 H-1(b); Revenue Ruling 74-530, 2 C.B. 188 (1974).The rules governing the allowance for depreciation are also the rules to be applied to the allowance for depletion under 26 U.S.C. Section 611.  e.    The charitable deduction.  The charitable deduction allowed estates and trusts under 26 U.S.C. Section 642(c) is not subject to the percentage of income limitation applicable to individual taxpayers under 26 U.S.C. Section 170(b). The allowable deduction is governed by the terms of the will or trust instrument, which can provide for unlimited payments for charitable purposes. However, an unused charitable contribution carryover of the decedent remaining after the decedent’s individual income tax liability for the year of death is determined is not available to the estate. The unused carryover terminates at death, except to the extent it may be used by the surviving spouse. See federal regulation Section 1.170A-10(d)(4)(iii). The deduction is limited to payments of gross income or amounts permanently set aside for charitable uses. A simple pecuniary bequest to charity in the decedent’s will does not qualify for the charitable deduction from the estate’s income. It is a payment from the corpus of the estate. Frank Trust of 1931, 145 F.2d 411 (3rd CA 1949). However, the pecuniary bequest to charity is exempt from the Iowa inheritance tax under Iowa Code section 450.4 if it meets the exemption requirements.  f.    Other deductions.  The category of other deductions includes those deductions allowable in computing taxable income not receiving special itemized treatment on the Iowa fiduciary return of income. The most common kind of other deductions is the expense of administration of an estate or trust paid during the taxable year. Expenses of administration include, but are not limited to: a reasonable fee and the necessary expenses of the attorney employed by the personal representative of an estate or the trustee of a trust; a reasonable fee and the necessary expenses of the personal representative of an estate or the trustee of a trust; accounting fees; court costs; and interest paid on federal estate tax during an extension of time to pay. However, administration expenses are subject to the no double deduction rule. See 26 U.S.C. Section 642(g) and 89.8(8)“g.” Salaries or fees paid during the taxable year for the management of a farm or business are expenses directly attributable to the production of a specific kind of income and are more properly deductible on the farm schedule F or the business schedule C.  g.    The no double deduction rule.  Expenses of administration, certain debts of the decedent like medical expenses incurred prior to death and losses during the period of administration are proper deductions in computing both the taxable income of an estate or trust (or on the decedent’s individual return in case of medical expenses) and the taxable estate for federal estate tax purposes under 26 U.S.C. Sections 2053 and 2054. The no double deduction rule only applies to trusts when the trust assets are included for federal estate tax purposes. 26 U.S.C. Section 642(g) prohibits the double deduction of those items which qualify as deductions for both taxes. To prevent the double deduction, it is a prerequisite for the allowance of the deduction for income tax purposes that a statement be filed with the fiduciary return of income waiving the right to claim the item or portion of the item as a deduction on the federal estate tax return. The waiver once filed with the fiduciary return of income is irrevocable. However, unless the waiver has been filed, the decision to claim the deduction or portion of the deduction on the federal estate tax return can be changed anytime prior to the time the item or portion of the item is finally allowed for federal estate tax purposes.The waiver requirement has no application to estates and trusts not required to file a federal estate tax return.The no double deduction rule has no application to deductions in respect of a decedent, such as deductions relating to trade or business expenses, interest, taxes, expenses for the production of income and the allowance for depletion, which are deductible both for income tax purposes and federal estate tax purposes. See 26 U.S.C. Section 691(b) and 26 CFR Section 1.691(b)-1 for what constitutes deductions in respect of a decedent.The no double deduction rule does not apply to the deduction of an item for Iowa inheritance tax purposes. Items are deductible or not in computing the taxable shares for Iowa inheritance tax purposes by reference alone to Iowa Code chapter 450.Assuming an item is otherwise deductible for income and inheritance tax purposes, the no double deduction rule has the following applications for Iowa income and inheritance tax:
  1. Estates and trusts not required to file a federal estate tax return can claim the item as a deduction on both the Iowa inheritance tax return and the Iowa fiduciary income tax return.
  2. Estates and trusts required to file a federal estate tax return can claim the item as a deduction on the Iowa inheritance tax return. In addition, the same item or portion of the item is a deduction on the Iowa fiduciary income tax return if the item or portion of the item is not claimed as a deduction on the federal estate tax return. If it is claimed as a deduction on the federal estate tax return, it is not deductible on the Iowa fiduciary income tax return.
  3. For tax years ending on or after July 1, 2015, estates or trusts required to file a federal estate tax return can claim administrative expenses as a deduction on the Iowa fiduciary income tax return, regardless of whether the item or a portion of the item was claimed on the federal estate tax return.
This paragraph applies both to estates and trusts with a situs within and without Iowa.
  h.    The net operating loss deduction.  Subject to the modifications specified in federal regulation Section 1.642(d)-1, an estate or trust is allowed a deduction for net operating loss which is computed in the same manner as the net operating loss deduction allowable to individual taxpayers. The modification especially applicable to estates and trusts is: The the charitable deduction allowable under 26 U.S.C. Section 642(C) is disregarded. See federal regulation Section 1.642(d)-1.The rule that nonbusiness deductions are only taken into account to the extent of nonbusiness income applies equally to estates and trusts and individual taxpayers. Attorney fees and the fees of the trustee or personal representative, without a showing that these administrative expenses were incurred in carrying on the decedent’s or grantor’s trade or business, are a nonbusiness deduction. Refling v.Commissioner, 47 F.2d 895 (8th CA 1930). Therefore, any excess fees over income are not available for a carryback to a prior taxable year or a carryforward to a future taxable year. Mary C. Westphal, 37 T.C. 340 (1961). However, see 89.8(9)“a” for the special rule on excess deductions in the year the estate or trust terminates. Net operating losses are available to the estate or trust and can be carried back for distribution to a beneficiary, with the exception that any unused loss must be distributed to the beneficiaries in the year the estate or trust terminates.Estates and trusts with a situs outside Iowa are allowed a deduction only for a net operating loss attributable to a trade or business activity carried on in the state of Iowa. In the event the trade or business activity giving rise to the loss is carried on both in Iowa and another state, the net operating loss deduction for Iowa income tax purposes must be prorated on the ratio of the Iowa gross receipts from the trade or business to the total gross receipts from the trade or business. See 701—subrule 40.18(2) for the computation of the net operating loss deduction of a nonresident decedent.  i.    Capital loss deduction.  The capital loss deduction of an estate or trust is computed in the same manner as the capital loss deduction for individual taxpayers. However, it is a deduction only for the estate or trust and is not distributable to a beneficiary, except in the year the estate or trust terminates. Grey v.Commissioner, 118 F.2d 153, 141 ALR 1113 (7th CA 1941); Jones v.Whittington, 194 F.2d 812 (10th CA 1952). Capital losses do not enter into the computation of the deduction for income required to be distributed currently to beneficiaries. During the period of administration of the estate or trust, capital losses can be used only to offset capital gain for simple trusts required to distribute income currently. However, beneficiaries may derive immediate benefit from capital losses when capital gain is required or permitted to be distributed to beneficiaries prior to closure of the estate or trust, since the losses can be used to offset gain before distribution.  j.    The distribution deduction.  Estates and trusts are allowed to deduct the amounts of income required to be distributed currently and also other amounts properly paid, credited or required to be distributed to the extent of the distributable net income for the year. For income tax purposes, an estate of a decedent is treated as a complex trust, because normally the personal representative of an estate has the discretion whether or not to distribute current income. Therefore, most distributions of income from a decedent’s estate fall under the category of “other amounts properly paid, credited or required to be distributed.” However, see Colthurst v.Colthurst, 265 N.W.2d 590 (Iowa 1978) for circumstances when the personal representative of an estate is required to distribute current income during the period of administration to a life tenant (the surviving spouse in this case).The distribution deduction allowed is limited to the distributable net income of the estate or trust for the taxable year. If amounts in excess of distributable net income are distributed to a beneficiary of a decedent’s estate, the excess does not constitute taxable income to the beneficiary. Distributions made to a beneficiary of a complex trust in excess of the distributable net income for the taxable year may or may not be includable in the beneficiary’s taxable income depending on whether the excess distribution is governed by the throwback distribution rules under 26 U.S.C. Sections 665 through 668.Estates and trusts with tax years beginning on or after August 5, 1997, may elect to treat distributions made within 65 days of the end of the tax year as having been made in the tax year of the estate or trust. If amounts in excess of distributable net income are distributed to a beneficiary of a decedent’s estate, the excess does not constitute taxable income to the beneficiary. Distributions made to a beneficiary of a complex trust in excess of the distributable net income for the taxable year may or may not be includable in the beneficiary’s taxable income depending on whether the excess distribution is governed by the throwback distribution rules under 26 U.S.C. Sections 665 through 668. Effective for distributions made by domestic trusts in tax years beginning after August 5, 1997, there is a repeal of the throwback rules found in 26 U.S.C. Sections 665 through 668. However, the repeal of the throwback rules does not apply to trusts created before March 1, 1984, foreign trusts, or domestic trusts that were once treated as foreign trusts, except as provided by federal regulations.Income distributed to a beneficiary of an estate or trust retains the same character in the hands of the beneficiary as it had in the estate or trust, with the exception of unused capital loss distributed on closure to a corporation, in which case the loss is treated as a short-term loss, regardless of its character in the estate or trust. See federal regulation Section 1.642(h)-1(g). In addition, unless the will or trust instrument specifically provides otherwise, a distribution to beneficiaries is considered to be a proportionate distribution of the different kinds of income composing the distributable net income of the estate or trust. See 26 U.S.C. Section 662.2(b) and federal regulation Section 1.662(b)-1. The same character and proportionate distribution rule is illustrated by the following:Example:Decedent A, a resident of Iowa, died February 15, 1997. Under the terms of the will, all the decedent’s property was devised in equal shares to beneficiary B, a resident of Phoenix, Arizona, and beneficiary C, a resident of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The estate adopted a calendar year as its taxable year. For calendar year 1997, the estate had distributable net income of $50,000, which is composed of:Interest income $10,000Dividend income 5,000Net Iowa farm income 35,000Total $50,000On December 20, 1997, the estate distributed $12,500 to beneficiary B, and $12,500 to beneficiary C. Beneficiaries B and C have received a distribution for 1997 as follows:Beneficiary BBeneficiary CInterest income $2,500Interest income$2,500Dividends1,250Dividends1,250Farm income 8,750Farm income 8,750Total$12,500Total$12,500The estate is entitled to a deduction of $25,000 against gross income in 1997 for the distribution to beneficiaries B and C and owes Iowa income tax on the $25,000 income retained in the estate. Since the interest income of the estate is 20 percent of the distributable net income, 20 percent of the distribution to beneficiaries B and C is considered interest income. Likewise, 10 percent of the estate’s distributable net income is dividends and 70 percent farm income. The distribution to B and C consists of a corresponding percentage of dividends and farm income. Beneficiary C, a resident of Iowa, must report the entire distribution of $12,500 on a 1997 Iowa individual income tax return. Beneficiary B, a resident of Arizona, is only required to report the farm income portion of the distribution ($8,750) on a 1997 nonresident individual income tax return, because dividends and interest are income from intangible personal property and were not derived from a business, trade, profession or occupation carried on within Iowa by the nonresident. See 701—subrule 40.16(5).  k.    The dividend exclusion.  Estates and trusts are eligible for the dividend exclusion allowed individual taxpayers under 26 U.S.C. Section 116 (the Iowa exclusion is $100 for 1981). The exclusion is allocated to the estate or trust if the dividend income for the taxable year is accumulated. The dividend exclusion is allocated to the beneficiaries when all of the distributable net income for the taxable year is distributed. The distribution must not be diminished by the exclusion. The dividend exclusion is then available to the beneficiaries after the dividends distributed are added to any other dividends received by the beneficiaries during the taxable year. If there is only a partial distribution of the distributable net income of the estate or trust for the taxable year, the dividend exclusion must be prorated between the beneficiaries and the estate or trust on the basis of the percentage of the distributable net income accumulated by the estate or trust and the percentage distributed to the beneficiaries. A partial distribution of the dividends and exclusion is to be reported and used by the beneficiaries for income tax purposes in the same manner as the full distribution of dividends. See federal regulation Sections 1.116-1(a) and 1.661(c)-1.  l.    The capital gains deduction.  26 U.S.C. Section 1202(b) provides that an estate or trust is allowed a deduction for net capital gain received during the taxable year. Except for the requirement of allocation between the beneficiaries and the estate or trust, the deduction is computed in the same manner as the net capital gain deduction allowed individuals. See federal regulation Section 1.1202-1 (b). If the net capital gain is allocated to corpus, the estate or trust is entitled to the deduction. If the will or trust instrument requires capital gain to be distributed to the beneficiaries or if the trustee or personal representative of a decedent’s estate is authorized to allocate capital gain to income and distributes the capital gain, then the net capital gain deduction is allocated to the beneficiaries and is not a deduction to the estate or trust. The gain distributed must not be diminished by the deduction. It must first be combined with any other capital gains and losses of the beneficiary prior to determining whether the net capital gain deduction is applicable for the beneficiary’s taxable year.If the net capital gain for the taxable year is partially allocated to corpus and partially distributed, then the net capital gain deduction is available to the beneficiaries only on the gain distributed and to the estate or trust only on the gain accumulated. A partial distribution of capital gain is treated for purposes of a beneficiary’s income tax liability in the same manner as a full distribution of capital gain.  m.    The Iowa throwback rule.  Iowa Code section 422.6 allows a trust beneficiary receiving an accumulation distribution subject to the throwback rules under 26 U.S.C. Sections 665 through 668 a credit against the beneficiary’s income tax liability for the Iowa income tax paid by the trust on the accumulated income distributed. The Iowa income tax paid by the trust on the accumulated income distributed is deemed distributed to the trust beneficiary, without interest, and is a credit for the year of distribution against the portion of the Iowa income tax liability of the beneficiary which is attributable to the accumulated distribution. The accumulated distribution must be adjusted by the beneficiary to reflect income subject to Iowa income tax. No refund is allowed the trust for the Iowa income tax deemed distributed to the beneficiary. The beneficiary is not allowed a refund if the tax distributed is in excess of the income tax liability attributable to the distribution. Effective for distributions made by domestic trusts in tax years beginning after August 5, 1997, there is a repeal of the throwback rules found in 26 U.S.C. Sections 665 through 668. However, the repeal of the throwback rules does not apply to trusts created before March 1, 1984, foreign trusts, or domestic trusts that were once treated as foreign trusts, except as provided by federal regulations.  n.    Federal estate tax paid on income in respect of a decedent.  For Iowa income tax purposes, Iowa Code section 422.7 makes no provision for adjusting the deduction for federal estate tax paid when the income in respect of a decedent includes interest from federal securities. Therefore, the federal estate tax paid on interest from federal securities, which is classified as income in respect of a decedent under 26 U.S.C. Section 691(a), is a deduction for Iowa income tax purposes in the taxable year the interest is received. However, interest and dividends from securities of a state or political subdivision, which are exempt from federal income tax, do not constitute the kind of income in respect of a decedent on which the deduction is computed. Since the deduction under 26 U.S.C. Section 691(c) does not apply to income exempt from federal income tax, there is no deduction on the Iowa return for the federal estate tax paid on the exempt interest, even though under Iowa Code section 422.7 this interest is subject to Iowa income tax.The deduction allowable in any taxable year is limited to a percentage of the total federal estate tax deduction which is determined by the ratio of income in respect of a decedent received for the year to the total amount of the net income in respect of a decedent on which federal estate tax was paid. See 26 U.S.C. Section 691(c) and federal regulation Section 1.691(c)-1 for the computation of the deduction.
  89.8(9)    The final return—special considerations.    a.    General rule.  In the year of closure all income received by the estate or trust is considered “other amounts properly paid or credited or required to be distributed” and must be distributed to the beneficiaries according to the terms of the governing instrument. Rev.Ruling 58-423, 2 C.B. 151 (1958). Dividends and capital gains received during the year of closure must be distributed without being diminished by the net capital gain deduction or by the dividend exclusion. See federal regulation Section 1.643(a)-3(d). 26 U.S.C. Section 642(h) provides for an exception to the general rule that net operating and capital losses are only available to the taxpayer incurring the loss. Therefore, in the year of closure, any capital loss and net operating loss carryover that remains unused by the estate or trust is passed through the estate or trust and is allowed as a deduction to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property and may be applied by carrying back the losses, but such losses cannot be carried forward. See federal regulation Section 1.642(h)-1.If the estate or trust in the year of termination has incurred deductions in excess of gross income which do not qualify for treatment as a net operating or capital loss, such as administration expenses, the excess deductions are passed through the estate or trust and are available to the beneficiaries succeeding to the property. They are available only for the year the estate or trust terminates and only as an itemized deduction in the case of an individual beneficiary. See Revenue Ruling 58-191 1 C.B. 149 (1958). Excess deductions also include any unused net operating loss carryover, if the year the estate or trust terminates is the last carryforward year for the net operating loss. See federal regulation Section 1-642(h)-2(b).  b.    Exception to the general rule.  If in the year of termination an Iowa ancillary estate makes the required distribution of its income to the primary estate which is not being terminated, instead of to the beneficiaries of the estate, it is proper in the year of closure to treat the income as if it were accumulated by the Iowa ancillary estate. Permitting Iowa income tax to be paid on the income in this special case, in effect, allows the distribution to the primary estate to be made on a tax-paid basis. This exception to the general rule relieves the primary estate from the obligation of filing a second fiduciary return, which it would be required to do except for this special rule.  89.8(10)    Computation of the tax due.    a.    In general.  The tax due on the taxable income of an estate or trust is computed by using the same tax rate schedule used for computing the individual income tax liability. The provisions of the Iowa Code relating to the maximum net income of an individual before a tax liability is incurred have no application to the tax liability of an estate or trust. The taxable income of a short taxable year is not required to be annualized for the purpose of computing the tax liability. The tax due cannot be paid in installments. It must be paid in full within the time prescribed by law.  b.    Alternative minimum tax.  Special rules for estates and trusts. The sum of the items of tax preference determined under 26 U.S.C. Section 57 shall be apportioned between the estate or trust and the beneficiaries on the basis of the income of the estate or trust allocable to each under the provisions of federal income tax regulation Section 1.58-3. The minimum taxable income exemption of $17,500 allowable to an estate or trust shall be reduced to an amount which bears the same ratio to $17,500 that the sum of the items of tax preference apportioned to the estate or trust bears to the full sum of the items of tax preference before apportionment. See federal income tax regulation Section 1.58-1(d). See rule 701—39.6(422) for the computation of the Iowa alternative minimum tax.  89.8(11)    Credits against the tax.    a.    The personal exemption credit.  The estate of a decedent and a trust, whether simple or complex, are allowed the same credit against the tax as the credit allowed an individual taxpayer, that is currently $40. The personal exemption credit is not prorated for short taxable years. The federal exemption allowed estates and trusts under 26 U.S.C. Section 642(b), in lieu of the personal exemption for individuals, has no application to Iowa income tax.  b.    Credit for tax paid to another state or foreign country.  Iowa Code section 422.8 grants Iowa situs trusts and estates of Iowa resident decedents, which have income derived from sources in another state or foreign country, a credit against the Iowa tax for the income tax paid to the state or foreign country where the income was derived. To be eligible for the credit, the income must have been includable for income tax purposes both in Iowa and the other state or foreign country. The credit allowable against the Iowa tax is limited to the lesser of: (1) the tax paid to the other state or foreign country on the income, or (2) the Iowa income tax paid on the foreign source income. The Iowa income tax paid on the foreign source income is computed by multiplying the Iowa computed tax, less the personal exemption credit, by a fraction of which the foreign source income included in the Iowa gross income is the numerator and the total Iowa gross income is the denominator. The resulting amount is the Iowa tax paid on foreign source income. Any tax paid to another state or foreign country in excess of the Iowa credit allowable is not refundable. Foreign situs trusts and estates of foreign decedents are not allowed a credit against the Iowa tax for the income tax paid another state or foreign country on Iowa source income. This rule is illustrated by the following example:Decedent A died a resident of Webster City, Iowa, on February 15, 1997. A at the time of death owned income-producing property both in Iowa and the state of Missouri. For the short taxable year ending December 31, 1997, A’s estate had the following income and expenses:Interest$ 5,000Dividends7,500Iowa farm income20,000Missouri farm income 10,000Iowa gross income$ 42,500Less allowable deductions 8,000Iowa taxable income$ 34,500Iowa computed tax$2,587.87 Less personal credit 40.00 Tax subject to credit for foreign taxes paid$2,547.87 Less credit for tax paid Missouri 413.00 Iowa tax due$2,134.87 A’s estate paid $413.00 income tax to the state of Missouri on the $10,000 Missouri farm income.The Iowa tax on the foreign source income is $604.20 computed as follows:Foreign income included in gross income $10,000×$2,547.87*=$604.20Total Iowa gross income $42,500*$2,547.87 is the Iowa computed tax less the $40.00 personal credit.The allowable credit for taxes paid the state of Missouri is $413.00, because it is less than the Iowa tax paid on the Missouri income. If the Missouri tax paid had been greater than the Iowa tax on the Missouri income, the allowable credit would have been the Iowa tax on the Missouri income.See 701—subrule 42.6(3) for the computation of the credit allowed Iowa resident individuals for income tax paid to another state or foreign country.  c.    Motor vehicle fuel tax credit.  An estate or trust incurring Iowa motor vehicle fuel tax expense attributable to nonhighway uses may, in lieu of obtaining an Iowa motor vehicle fuel refund, claim as a credit against its Iowa income tax liability, the Iowa motor vehicle fuel taxes paid during the taxable year.A copy of the Iowa motor vehicle fuel tax credit Form IA 4136 must be submitted with the fiduciary return of income to substantiate the claim for credit. Any credit in excess of the income tax due shall be refunded to the estate or trust, subject to the right of offset against other state taxes owing.  d.    Nonresident/part-year resident credit.  The nonresident/part-year resident credit is available for part-year trusts described in subrule 89.3(3) and trusts whose situs is outside Iowa. See rule 701—42.5(422) for the computation of the nonresident/part-year resident credit allowed for individuals who are either part-year residents of Iowa or nonresidents of Iowa.  e.    Other tax credits.  All other tax credits set forth in Iowa Code chapter 422, division II, are also available for any estate or trust that meets the criteria for claiming these tax credits. For tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2013, estates and trusts with a situs in Iowa which are shareholders in S corporations which carry on business within and without Iowa can take advantage of the apportionment provisions for S corporation income set forth in 701—Chapter 50. The criteria to determine whether the S corporation is carrying on business within and without Iowa is set forth in 701—subrule 54.1(4).This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code sections 422.3 to 422.12, 422.14, 422.23, and 633.471 and chapter 452A.
Related ARC(s): 8702B, 0398C, 1102C, 2661C701—89.9(422)  Audits, assessments and refunds.  Rules 701—43.1(422) to 43.3(422) governing the audit of individual income tax returns, the assessment for tax or additional tax due, and the refund of excessive tax paid shall also govern the audit of the fiduciary income tax return and the assessment and refund of fiduciary income tax.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code sections 422.16, 422.25, 422.30, 422.70 and 422.73.701—89.10(422)  The income tax certificate of acquittance.    89.10(1)    In general.  Iowa Code section 422.27 requires the income tax obligation of an estate or trust to be paid prior to approval of the final report by the court. Iowa Code section 422.27 refers only to the report of the executor, administrator or trustee. In addition, the statute makes reference only to a trustee’s final report that is approved by a court. A trust that does not report to and is not subject to the supervision of a court is not required to obtain a certificate of acquittance. However, the statute’s reference to a trustee who must report to the court would also include, but is not limited to, a referee in partition and the trustee of the estate of an individual bankrupt under Chapter 7 or 11 of Title 11 of the United States Code. What constitutes a trust is a matter of the trust law of the state of situs.  89.10(2)    The application for certificate of acquittance.  The final fiduciary return of income serves as an application for an income tax certificate of acquittance. For a certificate of acquittance to be received, the appropriate box on the final fiduciary return must be checked to request the certificate.  89.10(3)    Requirements for a certificate of acquittance.  The issuance of an income tax certificate of acquittance is dependent upon full payment of the income tax liability of the estate or trust for the period of administration. This includes the obligation to withhold income tax on distributions to nonresident beneficiaries. In the case of an estate, the income tax liability of the decedent for both prior years and the year of death must be paid to the extent of the probate property subject to the jurisdiction of the court. The probate property must be applied to the payment of the decedent’s income tax liability according to the order of payment of an estate’s debts and charges specified in Iowa Code section 633.425. If the probate property of the estate is insufficient to pay the decedent’s income tax obligation in full, the department, in lieu of a certificate of acquittance, shall issue a certificate stating that the probate property is insufficient to pay the decedent’s income tax liability and that the department does not object to the closure of the estate. In the event the decedent’s income tax obligation is not paid in full, the closure of the decedent’s estate does not release any other person who is liable to pay the decedent’s income tax obligation.  89.10(4)    The extent of the certificate.  An income tax certificate of acquittance is a statement of the department certifying that all income taxes due from the estate or trust have been paid in full to the extent of the income and deductions reported to the department. The certificate fulfills the statutory requirements of Iowa Code section 422.27 and the Iowa income tax portion of the requirements of Iowa Code sections 633.477 and 633.479. Providing all other closure requirements are met, the certificate permits the closure of the estate or trust by the court. However, the certificate of acquittance is not a release of liability for any income tax or additional tax that may become due, such as the result of an audit by the Internal Revenue Service or because of additional income not reported. See 701—subrule 38.2(1) for the limitations on the period of time to conduct income tax audits.  89.10(5)    No income tax certificate of acquittance required—exception to general rule.  If all of the property included in the estate is held in joint tenancy with rights of survivorship by a husband and wife as the only joint tenants, then in this case the provisions of Iowa Code section 422.27, subsection 1, do not apply and an income tax certificate of acquittance from the department is not required.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code sections 422.27, 633.425, 633.477 and 633.479.701—89.11(422)  Appeals to the director.  An estate or trust has the right to appeal to the director for a revision of an assessment for additional tax due, the denial or reduction of a claim for refund, the denial of a request for a waiver of a penalty and the denial of a request for an income tax certificate of acquittance. The beneficiary of an estate or trust has the right to appeal a determination of the correct amount of income distributed and a determination of the correct allocation of deductions, credits, losses and expenses between the estate or trust and the beneficiary. The personal representative of an estate and the trustee of a trust have the right to appeal a determination of personal liability for income taxes required to be paid or withheld and for a penalty personally assessed. An appeal to the director must be in writing and must be made within 60 days of the notice of assessment and the other matters which are subject to appeal or for assessments issued on or after January 1, 1995, if the beneficiary of an estate or trust, the personal representative of an estate, or the trustee of a trust fails to timely appeal a notice of assessment, the person may pay the entire assessment and file a refund claim within the period provided by law for filing such claims. 701—Chapter 7 shall govern appeals to the director. See specifically rules 701—7.8(17A) to 701—7.22(17A) governing taxpayer protests.This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code chapter 17A and sections 421.60 and 422.28.Related ARC(s): 0251C
Related ARC(s): 7761B, 8702B, 0251C, 0398C, 1102C, 1545C, 2661C