523A.901  Liquidation.

1.  Grounds for liquidation.  The commissioner may petition the district court for an order directing the commissioner to liquidate an establishment on either of the following grounds:

a.  The establishment did not deposit funds pursuant to section 523A.201 or withdrew funds in a manner inconsistent with this chapter and is insolvent.

b.  The establishment did not deposit funds pursuant to section 523A.201 or withdrew funds in a manner inconsistent with this chapter and the condition of the establishment is such that further transaction of business would be hazardous, financially or otherwise, to purchasers or the public.

2.  Liquidation order.

a.  An order to liquidate the business of an establishment shall appoint the commissioner as liquidator and shall direct the liquidator to immediately take possession of the assets of the establishment and to administer them under the general supervision of the court. The liquidator is vested with the title to the property, contracts, and rights of action and the books and records of the establishment ordered liquidated, wherever located, as of the entry of the final order of liquidation. The filing or recording of the order with the clerk of court and the recorder of deeds of the county in which its principal office or place of business is located, or in the case of real estate, with the recorder of deeds of the county where the property is located, is notice as a deed, bill of sale, or other evidence of title duly filed or recorded with the recorder of deeds.

b.  Upon issuance of an order, the rights and liabilities of an establishment and of the establishment's creditors, purchasers, owners, and other persons interested in the establishment's estate shall become fixed as of the date of the entry of the order of liquidation, except as provided in subsection 14.

c.  At the time of petitioning for an order of liquidation, or at any time after the time of petitioning, the commissioner, after making appropriate findings of an establishment's insolvency, may petition the court for a declaration of insolvency. After providing notice and hearing as it deems proper, the court may make the declaration.

d.  An order issued under this section shall require accounting to the court by the liquidator. Accountings, at a minimum, must include all funds received or disbursed by the liquidator during the current period. An accounting shall be filed within one year of the liquidation order and at such other times as the court may require.

e.  Within five days after the initiation of an appeal of an order of liquidation, which order has not been stayed, the commissioner shall present for the court's approval a plan for the continued performance of the establishment's obligations during the pendency of an appeal. The plan shall provide for the continued performance of purchase agreements in the normal course of events, notwithstanding the grounds alleged in support of the order of liquidation including the ground of insolvency. If the defendant establishment's financial condition, in the judgment of the commissioner, will not support the full performance of all obligations during the appeal pendency period, the plan may prefer the claims of certain purchasers and claimants over creditors and interested parties as well as other purchasers and claimants, as the commissioner finds to be fair and equitable considering the relative circumstances of such purchasers and claimants. The court shall examine the plan submitted by the commissioner and if it finds the plan to be in the best interests of the parties, the court shall approve the plan. An action shall not lie against the commissioner or any of the commissioner's deputies, agents, clerks, assistants, or attorneys by any party based on preference in an appeal pendency plan approved by the court.

3.  Powers of liquidator.

a.  The liquidator may do any of the following:

(1)  Appoint a special deputy to act for the liquidator under this chapter and determine the special deputy's reasonable compensation. The special deputy shall have all the powers of the liquidator granted by this section. The special deputy shall serve at the pleasure of the liquidator.

(2)  Hire employees and agents, legal counsel, accountants, appraisers, consultants, and other personnel as the commissioner may deem necessary to assist in the liquidation.

(3)  With the approval of the court, fix reasonable compensation of employees and agents, legal counsel, accountants, appraisers, and consultants.

(4)  Pay reasonable compensation to persons appointed and defray from the funds or assets of the establishment all expenses of taking possession of, conserving, conducting, liquidating, disposing of, or otherwise dealing with the business and property of the establishment. If the property of the establishment does not contain sufficient cash or liquid assets to defray the costs incurred, the commissioner may advance the costs so incurred out of the insurance division regulatory fund. Amounts so advanced for expenses of administration shall be repaid to the insurance division regulatory fund for the use of the division out of the first available moneys of the establishment.

(5)  Hold hearings, subpoena witnesses and compel their attendance, administer oaths, examine a person under oath, and compel a person to subscribe to the person's testimony after it has been correctly reduced to writing, and in connection to the proceedings require the production of books, accounts, papers, correspondence, memoranda, purchase agreements, files, or other documents or records which the liquidator deems relevant to the inquiry.

(6)  Collect debts and moneys due and claims belonging to the establishment, wherever located. Pursuant to this subparagraph, the liquidator may do any of the following:

(a)  Institute timely action in other jurisdictions to forestall garnishment and attachment proceedings against debts.

(b)  Perform acts as are necessary or expedient to collect, conserve, or protect its assets or property, including the power to sell, compound, compromise, or assign debts for purposes of collection upon terms and conditions as the liquidator deems best.

(c)  Pursue any creditor's remedies available to enforce claims.

(7)  Conduct public and private sales of the property of the establishment.

(8)  Use assets of the establishment under a liquidation order to transfer obligations of purchase agreements to a solvent establishment, if the transfer can be accomplished without prejudice to the applicable priorities under subsection 18.

(9)  Acquire, hypothecate, encumber, lease, improve, sell, transfer, abandon, or otherwise dispose of or deal with property of the establishment at its market value or upon terms and conditions as are fair and reasonable. The liquidator shall also have power to execute, acknowledge, and deliver deeds, assignments, releases, and other instruments necessary to effectuate a sale of property or other transaction in connection with the liquidation.

(10)  Borrow money on the security of the establishment's assets or without security and execute and deliver documents necessary to that transaction for the purpose of facilitating the liquidation. Money borrowed pursuant to this subparagraph shall be repaid as an administrative expense and shall have priority over any other class 1 claims under the priority of distribution established in subsection 18.

(11)  Enter into contracts as necessary to carry out the order to liquidate and affirm or disavow contracts to which the establishment is a party.

(12)  Continue to prosecute and to institute in the name of the establishment or in the liquidator's own name any and all suits and other legal proceedings, in this state or elsewhere, and to abandon the prosecution of claims the liquidator deems unprofitable to pursue further.

(13)  Prosecute an action on behalf of the creditors, purchasers, or owners against an officer of the establishment or any other person.

(14)  Remove records and property of the establishment to the offices of the commissioner or to other places as may be convenient for the purposes of efficient and orderly execution of the liquidation.

(15)  Deposit in one or more banks in this state sums as are required for meeting current administration expenses and distributions.

(16)  Unless the court orders otherwise, invest funds not currently needed.

(17)  File necessary documents for recording in the office of the recorder of deeds or record office in this state or elsewhere where property of the establishment is located.

(18)  Assert defenses available to the establishment against third persons including statutes of limitations, statutes of fraud, and the defense of usury. A waiver of a defense by the establishment after a petition in liquidation has been filed shall not bind the liquidator.

(19)  Exercise and enforce the rights, remedies, and powers of a creditor, purchaser, or owner, including the power to avoid transfer or lien that may be given by the general law and that is not included within subsections 7 through 9.

(20)  Intervene in a proceeding wherever instituted that might lead to the appointment of a receiver or trustee, and act as the receiver or trustee whenever the appointment is offered.

(21)  Exercise powers now held or later conferred upon receivers by the laws of this state which are not inconsistent with this chapter.

b.  This subsection does not limit the liquidator or exclude the liquidator from exercising a power not listed in paragraph "a" that may be necessary or appropriate to accomplish the purposes of this chapter.

4.  Notice to creditors and others.

a.  Unless the court otherwise directs, the liquidator shall give notice of the liquidation order as soon as possible by doing both of the following:

(1)  Mailing notice, by first-class mail, to all persons known or reasonably expected to have claims against the establishment, including purchasers, at their last known address as indicated by the records of the establishment.

(2)  Publication of notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the establishment has its principal place of business and in other locations as the liquidator deems appropriate.

b.  Notice to potential claimants under paragraph "a" shall require claimants to file with the liquidator their claims together with proper proofs of the claim under subsection 13 on or before a date the liquidator shall specify in the notice. Claimants shall keep the liquidator informed of their changes of address, if any.

c.  If notice is given pursuant to this subsection, the distribution of assets of the establishment under this chapter shall be conclusive with respect to claimants, whether or not a claimant actually received notice.

5.  Actions by and against liquidator.

a.  After issuance of an order appointing a liquidator of an establishment, an action at law or equity shall not be brought against the establishment within this state or elsewhere, and existing actions shall not be maintained or further presented after issuance of the order. Whenever in the liquidator's judgment, protection of the estate of the establishment necessitates intervention in an action against the establishment that is pending outside this state, the liquidator may intervene in the action. The liquidator may defend, at the expense of the estate of the establishment, an action in which the liquidator intervenes under this section.

b.  Within two years or such additional time as applicable law may permit, the liquidator, after the issuance of an order for liquidation, may institute an action or proceeding on behalf of the estate of the establishment upon any cause of action against which the period of limitation fixed by applicable law has not expired at the time of the filing of the petition upon which the order is entered. If a period of limitation is fixed by agreement for instituting a suit or proceeding upon a claim, or for filing a claim, proof of claim, proof of loss, demand, notice, or the like, or if in a proceeding, judicial or otherwise, a period of limitation is fixed in the proceeding or pursuant to applicable law for taking an action, filing a claim or pleading, or doing an act, and if the period has not expired at the date of the filing of the petition, the liquidator may, for the benefit of the estate, take any action or do any act, required of or permitted to the establishment, within a period of one hundred eighty days subsequent to the entry of an order for liquidation, or within a further period as is shown to the satisfaction of the court not to be unfairly prejudicial to the other party.

c.  A statute of limitations or defense of laches shall not run with respect to an action against an establishment between the filing of a petition for liquidation against the establishment and the denial of the petition. An action against the establishment that might have been commenced when the petition was filed may be commenced for at least sixty days after the petition is denied.

6.  Collection and list of assets.

a.  As soon as practicable after the liquidation order but not later than one hundred twenty days after such order, the liquidator shall prepare in duplicate a list of the establishment's assets. The list shall be amended or supplemented as the liquidator may determine. One copy shall be filed in the office of the clerk of court, and one copy shall be retained for the liquidator's files. Amendments and supplements shall be similarly filed.

b.  The liquidator shall reduce the assets to a degree of liquidity that is consistent with the effective execution of the liquidation.

c.  A submission of a proposal to the court for distribution of assets in accordance with subsection 11 fulfills the requirements of paragraph "a".

7.  Fraudulent transfers prior to petition.

a.  A transfer made and an obligation incurred by an establishment within one year prior to the filing of a successful petition for liquidation under this chapter is fraudulent as to then existing and future creditors if made or incurred without fair consideration, or with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud either existing or future creditors. A fraudulent transfer made or an obligation incurred by an establishment ordered to be liquidated under this chapter may be avoided by the liquidator, except as to a person who in good faith is a purchaser, lienor, or obligee for a present fair equivalent value. A purchaser, lienor, or obligee, who in good faith has given a consideration less than present fair equivalent value for such transfer, lien, or obligation, may retain the property, lien, or obligation as security for repayment. The court may, on due notice, order any such transfer, lien, or obligation to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, and in that event, the receiver shall succeed to and may enforce the rights of the purchaser, lienor, or obligee.

b. (1)  A transfer of property other than real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings on a simple contract could not become superior to the rights of the transferee under subsection 9, paragraph "c".

(2)  A transfer of real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent bona fide purchaser from the establishment could not obtain rights superior to the rights of the transferee.

(3)  A transfer which creates an equitable lien is not perfected if there are available means by which a legal lien could be perfected.

(4)  A transfer not perfected prior to the filing of a petition for liquidation is deemed to be made immediately before the filing of the successful petition.

(5)  This subsection applies whether or not there are or were creditors who might have obtained a lien or persons who might have become bona fide purchasers.

8.  Fraudulent transfer after petition.

a.  After a petition for liquidation has been filed, a transfer of real property of the establishment made to a person acting in good faith is valid against the liquidator if made for a present fair equivalent value. If the transfer is not made for a present fair equivalent value, then the transfer is valid to the extent of the present consideration actually paid for which amount the transferee shall have a lien on the property transferred. The commencement of a proceeding in liquidation is constructive notice upon the recording of a copy of the petition for or order of liquidation with the recording or* deeds in the county where any real property in question is located. The exercise by a court of the United States or a state or jurisdiction to authorize a judicial sale of real property of the establishment within a county in a state shall not be impaired by the pendency of a proceeding unless the copy is recorded in the county prior to the consummation of the judicial sale.

b.  After a petition for liquidation has been filed and before either the liquidator takes possession of the property of the establishment or an order of liquidation is granted:

(1)  A transfer of the property, other than real property, of the establishment made to a person acting in good faith is valid against the liquidator if made for a present fair equivalent value. If the transfer was not made for a present fair equivalent value, then the transfer is valid to the extent of the present consideration actually paid for which amount the transferee shall have a lien on the property transferred.

(2)  If acting in good faith, a person indebted to the establishment or holding property of the establishment may pay the debt or deliver the property, or any part of the property, to the establishment or upon the establishment's order as if the petition were not pending.

(3)  A person having actual knowledge of the pending liquidation is not acting in good faith.

(4)  A person asserting the validity of a transfer under this subsection has the burden of proof. Except as provided in this subsection, a transfer by or on behalf of the establishment after the date of the petition for liquidation by any person other than the liquidator is not valid against the liquidator.

c.  A person receiving any property from the establishment or any benefit of the property of the establishment which is a fraudulent transfer under paragraph "a" is personally liable for the property or benefit and shall account to the liquidator.

d.  This chapter does not impair the negotiability of currency or negotiable instruments.

9.  Voidable preferences and liens.

a. (1)  A preference is a transfer of the property of an establishment to or for the benefit of a creditor for an antecedent debt made or suffered by the establishment within one year before the filing of a successful petition for liquidation under this chapter, the effect of which transfer may be to enable the creditor to obtain a greater percentage of this debt than another creditor of the same class would receive. If a liquidation order is entered while the establishment is already subject to a receivership, then the transfers are preferences if made or suffered within one year before the filing of the successful petition for the receivership, or within two years before the filing of the successful petition for liquidation, whichever time is shorter.

(2)  A preference may be avoided by the liquidator if any of the following exist:

(a)  The establishment was insolvent at the time of the transfer.

(b)  The transfer was made within four months before the filing of the petition.

(c)  At the time the transfer was made, the creditor receiving it or to be benefited by the transfer or the creditor's agent acting with reference to the transfer had reasonable cause to believe that the establishment was insolvent or was about to become insolvent.

(d)  The creditor receiving the transfer was an officer, or an employee, attorney, or other person who was in fact in a position of comparable influence in the establishment to an officer whether or not the person held the position of an officer, owner, or other person, firm, corporation, association, or aggregation of persons with whom the establishment did not deal at arm's length.

(3)  Where the preference is voidable, the liquidator may recover the property. If the property has been converted, the liquidator may recover its value from a person who has received or converted the property. However, if a bona fide purchaser or lienor has given less than the present fair equivalent value, the purchaser or lienor shall have a lien upon the property to the extent of the consideration actually given. Where a preference by way of lien or security interest is voidable, the court may on due notice order the lien or security interest to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, in which event the lien or title shall pass to the liquidator.

b. (1)  A transfer of property other than real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings on a simple contract could not become superior to the rights of the transferee.

(2)  A transfer of real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent bona fide purchaser from the establishment could not obtain rights superior to the rights of the transferee.

(3)  A transfer which creates an equitable lien is not perfected if there are available means by which a legal lien could be created.

(4)  A transfer not perfected prior to the filing of a petition for liquidation is deemed to be made immediately before the filing of the successful petition.

(5)  This subsection applies whether or not there are or were creditors who might have obtained liens or persons who might have become bona fide purchasers.

c. (1)  A lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings upon a simple contract is one arising in the ordinary course of the proceedings upon the entry or docketing of a judgment or decree, or upon attachment, garnishment, execution, or like process, whether before, upon, or after judgment or decree and whether before or upon levy. It does not include liens which under applicable law are given a special priority over other liens which are prior in time.

(2)  A lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings may become superior to the rights of a transferee, or a purchaser may obtain rights superior to the rights of a transferee within the meaning of paragraph "b", if such consequences follow only from the lien or purchase itself, or from the lien or purchase followed by a step wholly within the control of the respective lienholder or purchaser, with or without the aid of ministerial action by public officials. However, a lien could not become superior and a purchase could not create superior rights for the purpose of paragraph "b" through an act subsequent to the obtaining of a lien or subsequent to a purchase which requires the agreement or concurrence of any third party or which requires further judicial action or ruling.

d.  A transfer of property for or on account of a new and contemporaneous consideration, which is under paragraph "b" made or suffered after the transfer because of delay in perfecting it, does not become a transfer for or on account of an antecedent debt if any acts required by the applicable law to be performed in order to perfect the transfer as against liens or a bona fide purchaser's rights are performed within twenty-one days or any period expressly allowed by the law, whichever is less. A transfer to secure a future loan, if a loan is actually made, or a transfer which becomes security for a future loan, shall have the same effect as a transfer for or on account of a new and contemporaneous consideration.

e.  If a lien which is voidable under paragraph "a", subparagraph (2), has been dissolved by the furnishing of a bond or other obligation, the surety of which has been indemnified directly or indirectly by the transfer or the creation of a lien upon property of an establishment before the filing of a petition under this chapter which results in the liquidation order, the indemnifying transfer or lien is also voidable.

f.  The property affected by a lien voidable under paragraphs "a" and "e" is discharged from the lien. The property and any of the indemnifying property transferred to or for the benefit of a surety shall pass to the liquidator. However, the court may on due notice order a lien to be preserved for the benefit of the estate and the court may direct that the conveyance be executed to evidence the title of the liquidator.

g.  The court shall have summary jurisdiction of a proceeding by a liquidator to hear and determine the rights of the parties under this section. Reasonable notice of hearing in the proceeding shall be given to all parties in interest, including the obligee of a releasing bond or other like obligation. Where an order is entered for the recovery of indemnifying property in kind or for the avoidance of an indemnifying lien, upon application of any party in interest, the court shall in the same proceeding ascertain the value of the property or lien. If the value is less than the amount for which the property is indemnified or less than the amount of the lien, the transferee or lienholder may elect to retain the property or lien upon payment of its value, as ascertained by the court, to the liquidator within the time as fixed by the court.

h.  The liability of a surety under a releasing bond or other like obligation is discharged to the extent of the value of the indemnifying property recovered or the indemnifying lien nullified and avoided by the liquidator. Where the property is retained under paragraph "g", the liability of the surety is discharged to the extent of the amount paid to the liquidator.

i.  If a creditor has been preferred for property which becomes a part of the establishment's estate, and afterward in good faith gives the establishment further credit without security of any kind, the amount of the new credit remaining unpaid at the time of the petition may be set off against the preference which would otherwise be recoverable from the creditor.

j.  If within four months before the filing of a successful petition for liquidation under this chapter, or at any time in contemplation of a proceeding to liquidate, an establishment, directly or indirectly, pays money or transfers property to an attorney for services rendered or to be rendered, the transaction may be examined by the court on its own motion or shall be examined by the court on petition of the liquidator. The payment or transfer shall be held valid only to the extent of a reasonable amount to be determined by the court. The excess may be recovered by the liquidator for the benefit of the estate. However, where the attorney is in a position of influence in the establishment or an affiliate, payment of any money or the transfer of any property to the attorney for services rendered or to be rendered shall be governed by the provisions of paragraph "a", subparagraph (2), subparagraph subdivision (d).

k. (1)  An officer, manager, employee, shareholder, subscriber, attorney, or other person acting on behalf of the establishment who knowingly participates in giving any preference when the person has reasonable cause to believe the establishment is or is about to become insolvent at the time of the preference is personally liable to the liquidator for the amount of the preference. There is an inference that reasonable cause exists if the transfer was made within four months before the date of filing of this successful petition for liquidation.

(2)  A person receiving property from the establishment or the benefit of the property of the establishment as a preference voidable under paragraph "a" is personally liable for the property and shall account to the liquidator.

(3)  This subsection shall not prejudice any other claim by the liquidator against any person.

10.  Claims of holder of void or voidable rights.

a.  A claim of a creditor who has received or acquired a preference, lien, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or encumbrance, voidable under this chapter, shall not be allowed unless the creditor surrenders the preference, lien, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or encumbrance. If the avoidance is effected by a proceeding in which a final judgment has been entered, the claim shall not be allowed unless the money is paid or the property is delivered to the liquidator within thirty days from the date of the entering of the final judgment. However, the court having jurisdiction over the liquidation may allow further time if there is an appeal or other continuation of the proceeding.

b.  A claim allowable under paragraph "a" by reason of a voluntary or involuntary avoidance, preference, lien, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or encumbrance may be filed as an excused late filing under subsection 12, if filed within thirty days from the date of the avoidance or within the further time allowed by the court under paragraph "a".

11.  Liquidator's proposal to distribute assets.

a.  From time to time as assets become available, the liquidator shall make application to the court for approval of a proposal to disburse assets out of marshaled assets.

b.  The proposal shall at least include provisions for all of the following:

(1)  Reserving amounts for the payment of all the following:

(a)  Expenses of administration.

(b)  To the extent of the value of the security held, the payment of claims of secured creditors.

(c)  Claims falling within the priorities established in subsection 18, paragraphs "a" and "b".

(2)  Disbursement of the assets marshaled to date and subsequent disbursement of assets as they become available.

c.  Action on the application may be taken by the court provided that the liquidator's proposal complies with paragraph "b".

12.  Filing of claims.

a.  Proof of all claims shall be filed with the liquidator in the form required by subsection 13 on or before the last day for filing specified in the notice required under subsection 4.

b.  The liquidator may permit a claimant making a late filing to share in distributions, whether past or future, as if the claimant were not late, to the extent that the payment will not prejudice the orderly administration of the liquidation under any of the following circumstances:

(1)  The existence of the claim was not known to the claimant and the claimant filed the claim as promptly as reasonably possible after learning of it.

(2)  A transfer to a creditor was avoided under subsections 7 through 9, or was voluntarily surrendered under subsection 10, and the filing satisfies the conditions of subsection 10.

(3)  The valuation under subsection 17 of security held by a secured creditor shows a deficiency, which is filed within thirty days after the valuation.

c.  The liquidator may consider any claim filed late and permit the claimant to receive distributions which are subsequently declared on any claims of the same or lower priority if the payment does not prejudice the orderly administration of the liquidation. The late-filing claimant shall receive at each distribution the same percentage of the amount allowed on the claim as is then being paid to claimants of any lower priority. This shall continue until the claim has been paid in full.

13.  Proof of claim.

a.  Proof of claim shall consist of a statement signed by the claimant that includes all of the following that are applicable:

(1)  The particulars of the claim, including the consideration given for it.

(2)  The identity and amount of the security on the claim.

(3)  The payments, if any, made on the debt.

(4)  A statement that the sum claimed is justly owing and that there is no setoff, counterclaim, or defense to the claim.

(5)  Any right of priority of payment or other specific right asserted by the claimant.

(6)  A copy of the written instrument which is the foundation of the claim.

(7)  The name and address of the claimant and the attorney who represents the claimant, if any.

b.  A claim need not be considered or allowed if it does not contain all the information identified in paragraph "a" which is applicable. The liquidator may require that a prescribed form be used and may require that other information and documents be included.

c.  At any time the liquidator may request the claimant to present information or evidence supplementary to that required under paragraph "a", and may take testimony under oath, require production of affidavits or depositions, or otherwise obtain additional information or evidence.

d.  A judgment or order against an establishment entered after the date of filing of a successful petition for liquidation, or a judgment or order against the establishment entered at any time by default or by collusion need not be considered as evidence of liability or of the amount of damages. A judgment or order against an establishment before the filing of the petition need not be considered as evidence of liability or of the amount of damages.

14.  Special claims.

a.  A claim may be allowed even if contingent, if it is filed pursuant to subsection 12. The claim may be allowed and the claimant may participate in all distributions declared after it is filed to the extent that it does not prejudice the orderly administration of the liquidation.

b.  Claims that are due except for the passage of time shall be treated as absolute claims are treated. However, the claims may be discounted at the legal rate of interest.

c.  Claims made under employment contracts by directors, principal officers, or persons in fact performing similar functions or having similar powers are limited to payment for services rendered prior to the issuance of an order of liquidation under subsection 2.

15.  Disputed claims.

a.  If a claim is denied in whole or in part by the liquidator, written notice of the determination shall be given to the claimant or the claimant's attorney by first-class mail at the address shown in the proof of claim. Within sixty days from the mailing of the notice, the claimant may file objections with the liquidator. Unless a filing is made, the claimant shall not further object to the determination.

b.  If objections are filed with the liquidator and the liquidator does not alter the denial of the claim as a result of the objections, the liquidator shall ask the court for a hearing as soon as practicable and give notice of the hearing by first-class mail to the claimant or the claimant's attorney and to any other persons directly affected. The notice shall be given not less than ten nor more than thirty days before the date of hearing. The matter shall be heard by the court or by a court-appointed referee. The referee shall submit findings of fact along with a recommendation.

16.  Claims of other person.  If a creditor, whose claim against an establishment is secured in whole or in part by the undertaking of another person, fails to prove and file that claim, then the other person may do so in the creditor's name and shall be subrogated to the rights of the creditor, whether the claim has been filed by the creditor or by the other person in the creditor's name to the extent that the other person discharges the undertaking. However, in the absence of an agreement with the creditor to the contrary, the other person is not entitled to any distribution until the amount paid to the creditor on the undertaking plus the distributions paid on the claim from the establishment's estate to the creditor equal the amount of the entire claim of the creditor. An excess received by the creditor shall be held by the creditor in trust for the other person.

17.  Secured creditor's claims.

a.  The value of the security held by a secured creditor shall be determined in one of the following ways, as the court may direct:

(1)  By converting the security into money according to the terms of the agreement pursuant to which the security was delivered to the creditors.

(2)  By agreement, arbitration, compromise, or litigation between the creditor and the liquidator.

b.  The determination shall be under the supervision and control of the court with due regard for the recommendation of the liquidator. The amount so determined shall be credited upon the secured claim. A deficiency shall be treated as an unsecured claim. If the claimant surrenders the security to the liquidator, the entire claim shall be allowed as if unsecured.

18.  Priority of distribution.  The priority of distribution of claims from the establishment's estate shall be in accordance with the order in which each class of claims is set forth. Claims in each class shall be paid in full or adequate funds retained for the payment before the members of the next class receive any payment. Subclasses shall not be established within a class. The order of distribution of claims is as follows:

a. Class 1.  The costs and expenses of administration, including but not limited to the following:

(1)  Actual and necessary costs of preserving or recovering the assets of the establishment.

(2)  Compensation for all authorized services rendered in the liquidation.

(3)  Necessary filing fees.

(4)  Fees and mileage payable to witnesses.

(5)  Authorized reasonable attorney fees and other professional services rendered in the liquidation.

b. Class 2.  Reasonable compensation to employees for services performed to the extent that they do not exceed two months of monetary compensation and represent payment for services performed within one year before the filing of the petition for liquidation. Officers and directors are not entitled to the benefit of this priority. The priority is in lieu of other similar priority which may be authorized by law as to wages or compensation of employees.

c. Class 3.  Claims under purchase agreements.

d. Class 4.  Claims of general creditors.

e. Class 5.  Claims of the federal or of any state or local government. Claims, including those of a governmental body for a penalty or forfeiture, are allowed in this class only to the extent of the pecuniary loss sustained from the act, transaction, or proceeding out of which the penalty or forfeiture arose, with reasonable and actual costs incurred. The remainder of such claims shall be postponed to the class of claims under paragraph "g".

f. Class 6.  Claims filed late or any other claims other than claims under paragraph "g".

g. Class 7.  The claims of shareholders or other owners.

19.  Liquidator's recommendations to the court.

a.  The liquidator shall review claims duly filed in the liquidation and shall make further investigation as necessary. The liquidator may compound, compromise, or in any other manner negotiate the amount for which claims will be recommended to the court except where the liquidator is required by law to accept claims as settled by a person or organization. Unresolved disputes shall be determined under subsection 15. As soon as practicable, the liquidator shall present to the court a report of the claims against the establishment with the liquidator's recommendations. The report shall include the name and address of each claimant and the amount of the claim finally recommended.

b.  The court may approve, disapprove, or modify the report on claims by the liquidator. Reports not modified by the court within sixty days following submission by the liquidator shall be treated by the liquidator as allowed claims, subject to later modification or to rulings made by the court pursuant to subsection 15. A claim under a policy of insurance shall not be allowed for an amount in excess of the applicable policy limits.

20.  Distribution of assets.  Under the direction of the court, the liquidator shall pay distributions in a manner that will ensure the proper recognition of priorities and a reasonable balance between the expeditious completion of the liquidation and the protection of unliquidated and undetermined claims, including third-party claims. Distribution of assets in kind may be made at valuations set by agreement between the liquidator and the creditor and approved by the court.

21.  Unclaimed and withheld funds.

a.  Unclaimed funds subject to distribution remaining in the liquidator's hands when the liquidator is ready to apply to the court for discharge, including the amount distributable to a creditor, owner, or other person who is unknown or cannot be found, shall be deposited with the treasurer of state, and shall be paid without interest, except as provided in subsection 18, to the person entitled or to the person's legal representative upon proof satisfactory to the treasurer of state of the right to the funds. Any amount on deposit not claimed within six years from the discharge of the liquidator is deemed to have been abandoned and shall become the property of the state without formal escheat proceedings and be transferred to the insurance division regulatory fund.

b.  Funds withheld under subsection 14 and not distributed shall upon discharge of the liquidator be deposited with the treasurer of state and paid pursuant to subsection 18. Sums remaining which under subsection 18 would revert to the undistributed assets of the establishment shall be transferred to the insurance division regulatory fund and become the property of the state as provided under paragraph "a", unless the commissioner in the commissioner's discretion petitions the court to reopen the liquidation pursuant to subsection 23.

c.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, funds as identified in paragraph "a", with the approval of the court, shall be made available to the commissioner for use in the detection and prevention of future insolvencies. The commissioner shall hold these funds in the insurance division regulatory fund and shall pay without interest, except as provided in subsection 18, to the person entitled to the funds or to the person's legal representative upon proof satisfactory to the commissioner of the person's right to the funds. The funds shall be held by the commissioner for a period of two years at which time the rights and duties to the unclaimed funds shall vest in the commissioner.

22.  Termination of proceedings.

a.  When all assets justifying the expense of collection and distribution have been collected and distributed under this chapter, the liquidator shall apply to the court for discharge. The court may grant the discharge and make any other orders, including an order to transfer remaining funds that are uneconomical to distribute, as appropriate.

b.  Any other person may apply to the court at any time for an order under paragraph "a". If the application is denied, the applicant shall pay the costs and expenses of the liquidator in resisting the application, including a reasonable attorney fee.

23.  Reopening liquidation.  At any time after the liquidation proceeding has been terminated and the liquidator discharged, the commissioner or other interested party may petition the court to reopen the proceedings for good cause including the discovery of additional assets. The court shall order the proceeding reopened if it is satisfied that there is justification for the reopening.

24.  Disposition of records during and after termination of liquidation.  If it appears to the commissioner that the records of an establishment in the process of liquidation or completely liquidated are no longer useful, the commissioner may recommend to the court and the court shall direct what records shall be retained for future reference and what records shall be destroyed.

25.  External audit of liquidator's books.  The court may order audits to be made of the books of the commissioner relating to a liquidation established under this chapter, and a report of each audit shall be filed with the commissioner and with the court. The books, records, and other documents of the liquidation shall be made available to the auditor at any time without notice. The expense of an audit shall be considered a cost of administration of the liquidation.

Section History: Recent form

  2001 Acts, ch 118, §54

Footnotes

  *The words "recorder of" probably intended; corrective legislation is pending


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