1. a. Within three years after the return is filed or within three years after the return became due, including any extensions of time for filing, whichever time is the later, the department shall examine the return and determine the tax. However, if the taxpayer omits from income an amount which will, under the Internal Revenue Code, extend the statute of limitations for assessment of federal tax to six years under the federal law, the period for examination and determination is six years. In addition to the applicable period of limitation for examination and determination, the department may make an examination and determination at any time within six months from the date of receipt by the department of written notice from the taxpayer of the final disposition of any matter between the taxpayer and the internal revenue service with respect to the particular tax year. In order to begin the running of the six-month period, the notice shall be in writing in any form sufficient to inform the department of the final disposition with respect to that year, and a copy of the federal document showing the final disposition or final federal adjustments shall be attached to the notice.
b. The period for examination and determination of the correct amount of tax is unlimited in the case of a false or fraudulent return made with the intent to evade tax or in the case of a failure to file a return. In lieu of the period of limitation for any prior year for which an overpayment of tax or an elimination or reduction of an underpayment of tax due for that prior year results from the carryback to that prior year of a net operating loss or net capital loss, the period is the period of limitation for the taxable year of the net operating loss or net capital loss which results in the carryback. If the tax found due is greater than the amount paid, the department shall compute the amount due, together with interest and penalties as provided in subsection 2, and shall mail a notice of assessment to the taxpayer and, if applicable, to the taxpayer's authorized representative of the total, which shall be computed as a sum certain if paid on or before the last day of the month in which the notice is postmarked, or on or before the last day of the following month if the notice is postmarked after the twentieth day of any month. The notice shall also inform the taxpayer of the additional interest and penalty which will be added to the total due if not paid on or before the last day of the applicable month.
2. In addition to the tax or additional tax determined by the department under subsection 1, the taxpayer shall pay interest on the tax or additional tax at the rate in effect under section 421.7 for each month counting each fraction of a month as an entire month, computed from the date the return was required to be filed. In addition to the tax or additional tax, the taxpayer shall pay a penalty as provided in section 421.27.
3. If the amount of the tax as determined by the department is less than the amount paid, the excess shall be refunded with interest, the interest to begin to accrue on the first day of the second calendar month following the date of payment or the date the return was due to be filed or was filed, whichever is the latest, at the rate in effect under section 421.7 counting each fraction of a month as an entire month under the rules prescribed by the director. If an overpayment of tax results from a net operating loss or net capital loss which is carried back to a prior year, the overpayment, for purposes of computing interest on refunds, shall be considered as having been made on the date a claim for refund or amended return carrying back the net operating loss or net capital loss is filed with the department or on the first day of the second calendar month following the date of the actual payment of the tax, whichever is later. However, when the net operating loss or net capital loss carryback to a prior year eliminates or reduces an underpayment of tax due for an earlier year, the full amount of the underpayment of tax shall bear interest at the rate in effect under section 421.7 for each month counting each fraction of a month as an entire month from the due date of the tax for the earlier year to the last day of the taxable year in which the net operating loss or net capital loss occurred.
4. All payments received must be credited first, to the penalty and interest accrued, and then to the tax due. For purposes of this subsection, the department shall not reapply prior payments made by the taxpayer to penalty or interest determined to be due after the date of those prior payments, except that the taxpayer and the department may agree to apply payments in accordance with rules adopted by the director when there are both agreed and unagreed to items as a result of an examination.
5. A person or withholding agent required to supply information, to pay tax, or to make, sign, or file a semimonthly, monthly, or quarterly deposit form or return or supplemental return, who willfully makes a false or fraudulent semimonthly, monthly, or quarterly deposit form or return, or willfully fails to pay the tax, supply the information, or make, sign, or file the semimonthly, monthly, or quarterly deposit form or return, at the time or times required by law, is guilty of a fraudulent practice.
6. The certificate of the director to the effect that a tax has not been paid, that a return has not been filed, or that information has not been supplied, as required under the provisions of this division shall be prima facie evidence thereof except as otherwise provided in this section.
7. The periods of limitation provided by this section may be extended by the taxpayer by signing a waiver agreement to be provided by the department. The agreement shall stipulate the period of extension and the year or years to which the extension applies. It shall provide that a claim for refund may be filed by the taxpayer at any time during the period of extension.
8. A person or withholding agent who willfully attempts in any manner to defeat or evade a tax imposed by this division or the payment of the tax, upon conviction for each offense is guilty of a class "D" felony.
9. The jurisdiction of any offense as defined in this section is in the county of the residence of the person so charged, unless such person be a nonresident of this state or the person's residence in this state is not established, in either of which events jurisdiction of such offense is in the county of the seat of government of the state of Iowa.
10. A prosecution for any offense defined in this section must be commenced within six years after the commission thereof, and not after.
11. If a taxpayer files an amended return within sixty days prior to the expiration of the applicable period of limitations described in subsection 1, the department has sixty days from the date of receipt of the amended return to issue an assessment for any applicable tax, interest, or penalty.
[C35, § 6943-f21; C39, § 6943.057; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 422.25; 81 Acts, ch 131, § 8, ch 133, § 2, 4, ch 134, § 1, 2; 82 Acts, ch 1180, § 3, 8]
83 Acts, ch 160, § 5; 84 Acts, ch 1025, § 1; 84 Acts, ch 1173, § 5; 86 Acts, ch 1007, § 26; 86 Acts, ch 1241, § 19; 88 Acts, ch 1028, §29; 89 Acts, ch 251, § 19; 90 Acts, ch 1172, § 9; 94 Acts, ch 1133, §3, 4, 16; 95 Acts, ch 83, §3, 34
Referred to in § 15.335, 15A.9, 257.22, 422.10, 422.16, 422.33, 422.39, 422.59, 422.66, 422A.1, 422B.9, 422C.4, 422D.3, 423.23, 452A.66, 455B.455
1994 amendments to subsections 1 and 4 are effective for notices of assessment issued and payments made on or after January 1, 1995; 94 Acts, ch 1133, §16
Subsection 11 is retroactive to April 1, 1995, for amended tax returns filed on or after that date; 95 Acts, ch 83, §34
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Last update: Thu Mar 18 15:00:31 CST 1999