CHAPTER 218EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED IN A BONA FIDE EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, OR PROFESSIONAL CAPACITY (INCLUDING ANY EMPLOYEE EMPLOYED IN THE CAPACITY OF ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL OR TEACHER IN ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY SCHOOLS), OR IN THE CAPACITY OF OUTSIDE SALESPERSON[Prior to 11/4/98, see 347—Ch 218]875218.1(91D) Executive. “Employee employed in a bona fide executive…capacity” means any employee: 218.1(1) Whose primary duty consists of the management of the enterprise in which the employee is employed or of a customarily recognized department or subdivision thereof; 218.1(2) Who customarily and regularly directs the work of two or more other employees therein; 218.1(3) Who has the authority to hire or fire other employees or whose suggestions and recommendations as to the hiring or firing and as to the advancement and promotion or any other change of status of other employees will be given particular weight; 218.1(4) Who customarily and regularly exercises discretionary powers; 218.1(5) Who does not devote more than 20 percent, or, in the case of an employee of a retail or service establishment who does not devote as much as 40 percent, of the hours of work in the workweek to activities which are not directly and closely related to the performance of the work described in 218.1(1) to 218.1(4) of this definition: Provided, that this subrule shall not apply in the case of an employee who is in sole charge of an independent establishment or a physically separated branch establishment, or who owns at least a 20 percent interest in the enterprise in which employed; and 218.1(6) Who is compensated for services on a salary basis at a rate of not less than $310 per week, exclusive of board, lodging, or other facilities, provided that an employee who is compensated on a salary basis at a rate of not less than $500 per week, exclusive of board, lodging, or other facilities, and whose primary duty consists of the management of the enterprise in which the employee is employed or of a customarily recognized department or subdivision thereof, and includes the customary and regular direction of the work of two or more other employees therein, shall be deemed to meet all the requirements of this rule.Source: 29 CFR 541.1.875218.2(91D) Administrative. “Employee employed in a bona fide…administrative…capacity” means any employee: 218.2(1) Whose primary duty consists of either: a. The performance of office or nonmanual work directly related to management policies or general business operations of the employer or the employer’s customers, or b. The performance of functions in the administration of a school system, or educational establishment or institution, or of a department or subdivision thereof, in work directly related to the academic instruction or training carried on therein; and 218.2(2) Who customarily and regularly exercises discretion and independent judgment; and 218.2(3) a. Who regularly and directly assists a proprietor, or an employee employed in a bona fide executive or administrative capacity (as those terms are defined in this chapter), or b. Who performs under only general supervision work along specialized or technical lines requiring special training, experience, or knowledge, or c. Who executes under only general supervision special assignments and tasks; and 218.2(4) Who does not devote more than 20 percent, or, in the case of an employee of a retail or service establishment who does not devote as much as 40 percent of the employee hours worked in the workweek to activities which are not directly and closely related to the performance of the work described in 218.2(1) to 218.2(3); and 218.2(5) a. Who is compensated for services on a salary or fee basis at a rate of not less than $310 per week, exclusive of board, lodging, or other facilities, or b. Who, in the case of academic administrative personnel, is compensated for services as required by 218.2(5)“a” or on a salary basis which is at least equal to the entrance salary for teachers in the school system, educational establishment, or institution by which employed, provided that an employee who is compensated on a salary or fee basis at a rate of not less than $500 per week, exclusive of board, lodging, or other facilities, and whose primary duty consists of the performance of work described in 218.2(1) of this rule, which includes work requiring the exercise of discretion and independent judgment, shall be deemed to meet all the requirements of this rule.Source: 29 CFR 541.2.875218.3(91D) Professional. “Employee employed in a bona fide…professional capacity” means any employee: 218.3(1) Whose primary duty consists of the performance of: a. Work requiring knowledge of an advanced type in a field of science or learning customarily acquired by a prolonged course of specialized intellectual instruction and study, as distinguished from a general academic education and from an apprenticeship, and from training in the performance of routine mental, manual, or physical processes, b. Work that is original and creative in character in a recognized field of artistic endeavor (as opposed to work which can be produced by a person endowed with general manual or intellectual ability and training), and the result of which depends primarily on the invention, imagination, or talent of the employee, or c. Teaching, tutoring, instructing, or lecturing in the activity of imparting knowledge and who is employed and engaged in this activity as a teacher in the school system or educational establishment or institution by which employed; 218.3(2) Whose work requires the consistent exercise of discretion and judgment in its performance; 218.3(3) Whose work is predominantly intellectual and varied in character (as opposed to routine mental, manual, mechanical, or physical work) and is of a character that the output produced or the result accomplished cannot be standardized in relation to a given period of time; 218.3(4) Who does not devote more than 20 percent of the hours worked in the workweek to activities which are not an essential part of and necessarily incident to the work described in 218.3(1) to 218.3(3); 218.3(5) Who is compensated for services on a salary basis at a rate of not less than $340 per week, exclusive of board, lodging, or other facilities, provided that this subrule shall not apply in the case of an employee who is the holder of a valid license or certificate permitting the practice of law or medicine or any of their branches and who is actually engaged in the practice thereof, nor in the case of an employee who is the holder of the requisite academic degree for the general practice of medicine and is engaged in an internship or resident program pursuant to the practice of medicine or any of its branches, nor in the case of an employee employed and engaged as a teacher as provided in 218.3(1)“c,” provided that an employee who is compensated on a salary or fee basis at a rate of not less than $500 per week, exclusive of board, lodging, or other facilities, and whose primary duty consists of the performance either of work described in 218.3(1)“a” to 218.3(1)“c,” which includes work requiring the consistent exercise of discretion and judgment, or of work requiring invention, imagination, or talent in a recognized field of artistic endeavor, shall be deemed to meet all of the requirements of this rule.Source: 29 CFR 541.3.875218.4 Reserved.875218.5(91D) Outside salesperson. “Employee employed... in the capacity of outside salesperson” means any employee: 218.5(1) Who is employed for the purpose of and who is customarily and regularly engaged away from the employer’s place or places of business in: a. Making sales which include any sale, exchange, contract to sell, consignment for sale, shipment for sale, or other disposition, or b. Obtaining orders or contracts for services or for the use of facilities for which a consideration will be paid by the client or customer; and 218.5(2) Whose hours of work of a nature other than that described in 218.5(1)“a” or “b” do not exceed 20 percent of the hours worked in the workweek by nonexempt employees of the employer, provided that work performed incidental to and in conjunction with the employee’s own outside sales or solicitations, including incidental deliveries and collections, shall not be regarded as nonexempt work.Source: 29 CFR 541.5.875218.6(91D) Special provision for motion picture producing industry. The requirement of rules 218.1(91D) to 218.3(91D) that the employee be paid “on a salary basis” shall not apply to an employee in the motion picture producing industry who is compensated at a base rate of at least $500 a week (exclusive of board, lodging, or other facilities).Source: 29 CFR 541.5a.875218.7 Reserved.875218.8 Reserved.875218.9 Reserved.875218.10 Reserved.875218.11 Reserved.875218.12 Reserved.875218.13 Reserved.875218.14 Reserved.875218.15 Reserved.875218.16 Reserved.875218.17 Reserved.875218.18 Reserved.875218.19 Reserved.875218.20 Reserved.875218.21 Reserved.875218.22 Reserved.875218.23 Reserved.875218.24 Reserved.875218.25 Reserved.875218.26 Reserved.875218.27 Reserved.875218.28 Reserved.875218.29 Reserved.875218.30 Reserved.875218.31 Reserved.875218.32 Reserved.875218.33 Reserved.875218.34 Reserved.875218.35 Reserved.875218.36 Reserved.875218.37 Reserved.875218.38 Reserved.875218.39 Reserved.875218.40 Reserved.875218.41 Reserved.875218.42 Reserved.875218.43 Reserved.875218.44 Reserved.875218.45 Reserved.875218.46 Reserved.875218.47 Reserved.875218.48 Reserved.875218.49 Reserved.875218.50 Reserved.875218.51 Reserved.875218.52 Reserved.875218.53 Reserved.875218.54 Reserved.875218.55 Reserved.875218.56 Reserved.875218.57 Reserved.875218.58 Reserved.875218.59 Reserved.875218.60 Reserved.875218.61 Reserved.875218.62 Reserved.875218.63 Reserved.875218.64 Reserved.875218.65 Reserved.875218.66 Reserved.875218.67 Reserved.875218.68 Reserved.875218.69 Reserved.875218.70 Reserved.875218.71 Reserved.875218.72 Reserved.875218.73 Reserved.875218.74 Reserved.875218.75 Reserved.875218.76 Reserved.875218.77 Reserved.875218.78 Reserved.875218.79 Reserved.875218.80 Reserved.875218.81 Reserved.875218.82 Reserved.875218.83 Reserved.875218.84 Reserved.875218.85 Reserved.875218.86 Reserved.875218.87 Reserved.875218.88 Reserved.875218.89 Reserved.875218.90 Reserved.875218.91 Reserved.875218.92 Reserved.875218.93 Reserved.875218.94 Reserved.875218.95 Reserved.875218.96 Reserved.875218.97 Reserved.875218.98 Reserved.875218.99 Reserved.875218.100 Reserved.BONA FIDE EXECUTIVE CAPACITY875218.101(91D) General. The work described in 218.1(1) to 218.1(4) and the activities directly and closely related to that work will be referred to as “exempt” work, while other activities will be referred to as “nonexempt” work.Source: 29 CFR 541.101.875218.102(91D) Management. 218.102(1) In the usual situation the determination of whether a particular kind of work is exempt or nonexempt in nature is not difficult. In the vast majority of cases the bona fide executive employee performs managerial and supervisory functions which are easily recognized as within the scope of the exemption. 218.102(2) For example, work similar to the following is exempt work when it is performed by an employee in the management of the employee’s department or the supervision of employees: a. Interviewing, selecting, and training of employees; b. Setting and adjusting their rates of pay and hours of work; c. Directing their work; d. Maintaining their production or sales records for use in supervision or control; e. Appraising their productivity and efficiency for the purpose of recommending promotions or other changes in their status; f. Handling their complaints and grievances and disciplining them when necessary; g. Planning the work; h. Determining the techniques to be used; i. Apportioning the work among the workers; j. Determining the type of materials, supplies, machinery or tools to be used or merchandise to be bought, stocked and sold; k. Controlling the flow and distribution of materials or merchandise and supplies; and l. Providing for the safety of the employees and the property.Source: 29 CFR 541.102.875218.103(91D) Primary duty. A determination of whether an employee has management as the primary duty must be based on all the facts in a particular case. The amount of time spent in the performance of the managerial duties is a useful guide in determining whether management is the primary duty of an employee. In the ordinary case, primary duty means the major part, or over 50 percent, of the employee’s time. Thus, an employee who spends over 50 percent of the time in management would have management as the primary duty. Time alone, however, is not the sole test, and in situations where the employee does not spend over 50 percent of the time in managerial duties, the employee might nevertheless have management as the primary duty if the other pertinent factors support the conclusion. Some of these pertinent factors are the relative importance of the managerial duties as compared with other types of duties, the frequency with which the employee exercises discretionary powers, the employee’s relative freedom from supervision, and the relationship between the employee’s salary and the wages paid other employees for the kind of nonexempt work performed by the supervisor.Source: 29 CFR 541.103.875218.104(91D) Department or subdivision. 218.104(1) In order to qualify under 218.1(91D), the employee’s managerial duties must be performed with respect to the enterprise in which the employee is employed or a customarily recognized department or subdivision thereof. The phrase “a customarily recognized department or subdivision” is intended to distinguish between a mere collection of persons assigned from time to time to a specific job or series of jobs and a unit with permanent status and function. In order to properly classify an individual as an executive, the employee must be more than merely a supervisor of two or more employees; nor is it sufficient that the employee merely participate in the management of the unit. The employee must be in charge of and have as the primary duty the management of a recognized unit which has a continuing function. 218.104(2) In the vast majority of cases there is no difficulty in determining whether an individual is in charge of a customarily recognized department or subdivision of a department. For example, where an enterprise comprises more than one establishment, the employee in charge of each establishment may be considered in charge of a subdivision of the enterprise. 218.104(3) The unit supervised need not be physically within the employer’s establishment and may move from place to place, and that continuity of the same subordinate personnel is not absolutely essential to the existence of a recognized unit with a continuing function, although in the ordinary case a fixed location and continuity of personnel are both helpful in establishing the existence of a unit.Source: 29 CFR 541.104.875218.105(91D) Two or more other employees. 218.105(1) An employee will qualify as an “executive” under 218.1(91D) only if the employee customarily and regularly supervises at least two full-time employees or the equivalent. For example, if the “executive” supervises one full-time and two part-time employees, one of whom works mornings and one, afternoons, or four part-time employees, two of whom work mornings and two, afternoons, this requirement would be met. 218.105(2) The employees supervised must be employed in the department which the “executive” is managing. 218.105(3) Reserved. 218.105(4) Reserved. 218.105(5) Reserved.Source: 29 CFR 541.105.875218.106(91D) Authority to hire or fire. Rule 218.1(91D) requires that an exempt executive employee have the authority to hire or fire other employees or that the exempt executive employee’s suggestions and recommendations as to hiring or firing and as to advancement and promotion or any other change of status of the employees whom the executive supervises will be given particular weight. Thus, no employee, whether high or low in the hierarchy of management, can be considered as employed in a bona fide executive capacity unless the executive is directly concerned either with the hiring or the firing and other change of status of the employees under the executive’s supervision, whether by direct action or by recommendation to those to whom the hiring and firing functions are delegated.Source: 29 CFR 541.106.875218.107(91D) Discretionary powers. 218.107(1) An exempt executive employee shall customarily and regularly exercise discretionary powers. A person whose work is so completely routinized that the person has no discretion does not qualify for exemption. 218.107(2) The phrase “customarily and regularly” signifies a frequency which must be greater than occasional but which may be less than constant. The requirement will be met by the employee who normally and recurrently is called upon to exercise and does exercise discretionary powers in the day-to-day performance of duties. The requirement is not met by the occasional exercise of discretionary powers.Source: 29 CFR 541.107.875218.108(91D) Work directly and closely related. 218.108(1) This phrase brings within the category of exempt work not only the actual management of the department and the supervision of the employees therein, but also activities which are closely associated with the performance of the duties involved in the managerial and supervisory functions or responsibilities. The supervision of employees and the management of a department include a great many directly and closely related tasks which are different from the work performed by subordinates and are commonly performed by supervisors because they are helpful in supervising the employees or contribute to the smooth functioning of the department for which they are responsible. Frequently, this exempt work is of a kind which, in establishments that are organized differently or which are larger and have greater specialization of function, may be performed by a nonexempt employee hired especially for that purpose. 218.108(2) Reserved. 218.108(3) Reserved. 218.108(4) Reserved. 218.108(5) Reserved. 218.108(6) Reserved. 218.108(7) Reserved.Source: 29 CFR 541.108.875218.109(91D) Emergencies. 218.109(1) Under certain occasional emergency conditions, work which is normally performed by nonexempt employees and is nonexempt in nature will be directly and closely related to the performance of the exempt functions of management and supervision and will therefore be exempt work. In effect, this means that a bona fide executive who performs work of a normally nonexempt nature on rare occasions because of the existence of a real emergency will not, because of the performance of the emergency work, lose the exemption. Bona fide executives include among their responsibilities the safety of the employees under their supervision, the preservation and protection of the merchandise, machinery or other property of the department or subdivision in their charge from damage due to unforeseen circumstances, and the prevention of widespread breakdown in production, sales, or service operations. Consequently, when conditions beyond control arise which threaten the safety of the employees, or a cessation of operations, or serious damage to the employer’s property, any manual or other normally nonexempt work performed in an effort to prevent such results is considered exempt work and is not included in computing the percentage limitation on nonexempt work. 218.109(2) Subrule 218.109(1) is not applicable to nonexempt work arising out of occurrences which are not regular, predictable and hence controllable. 218.109(3) Reserved. 218.109(4) Reserved.Source: 29 CFR 541.109.875218.110(91D) Occasional tasks. In determining whether occasional tasks are directly and closely related to the performance of the management duties, consideration should be given to whether the work is:
- The same as the work performed by any of the subordinates of the executive;
- A specifically assigned task of the executive employees;
- Practicably delegable to nonexempt employees in the establishment; or
- Repetitive and frequently recurring.