CHAPTER 707HOMICIDE AND RELATED CRIMESReferred to in 232.52, 331.307, 364.22, 633.535, 701.1
707.1Murder defined.
707.2Murder in the first degree.
707.3Murder in the second degree.
707.3ASolicitation to commit murder.
707.4Voluntary manslaughter.
707.5Involuntary manslaughter.
707.6Civil liability.
707.6AHomicide or serious injury by vehicle.
707.7Feticide.
707.8Nonconsensual termination — serious injury to a human pregnancy.
707.8APartial-birth abortion prohibited — exceptions — penalties.
707.9Murder of fetus aborted alive.
707.10Duty to preserve the life of the fetus.
707.11Attempt to commit murder.
707.1Murder defined.A person who kills another person with malice aforethought either express or implied commits murder.[C51, §2568; R60, §4191; C73, §3848; C97, §4727, 4796; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §12910, 12961; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §690.1, 697.1; C79, 81, §707.1]Referred to in 229A.2, 707.3A707.2Murder in the first degree.1.  A person commits murder in the first degree when the person commits murder under any of the following circumstances:a.  The person willfully, deliberately, and with premeditation kills another person.b.  The person kills another person while participating in a forcible felony.c.  The person kills another person while escaping or attempting to escape from lawful custody.d.  The person intentionally kills a peace officer, correctional officer, public employee, or hostage while the person is imprisoned in a correctional institution under the jurisdiction of the Iowa department of corrections, or in a city or county jail.e.  The person kills a child while committing child endangerment under section 726.6, subsection 1, paragraph “b”, or while committing assault under section 708.1 upon the child, and the death occurs under circumstances manifesting an extreme indifference to human life.f.  The person kills another person while participating in an act of terrorism as defined in section 708A.1.2.  Murder in the first degree is a class “A” felony.3.  For purposes of determining whether a person should register as a sex offender pursuant to the provisions of chapter 692A, the fact finder shall make a determination as provided in section 692A.126.[C51, §2569, 2572; R60, §4192, 4195; C73, §3849, 3852; C97, §4728, 4747, 4796; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §12911, 12924, 12961; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §690.2, 692.1, 697.1; C79, 81, §707.2]83 Acts, ch 96, §118, 159, 94 Acts, ch 1172, §42, 2002 Acts, ch 1075, §1, 2009 Acts, ch 119, §48, 2013 Acts, ch 30, §199Referred to in 331.802, 671A.2, 692A.101, 692A.102, 692A.126, 902.1, 910.3A
Definition of forcible felony, see §702.11
707.3Murder in the second degree.1.  A person commits murder in the second degree when the person commits murder which is not murder in the first degree.2.  Murder in the second degree is a class “B” felony. However, notwithstanding section 902.9, subsection 1, paragraph “b”, the maximum sentence for a person convicted under this section shall be a period of confinement of not more than fifty years.3.  For purposes of determining whether a person should register as a sex offender pursuant to the provisions of chapter 692A, the fact finder shall make a determination as provided in section 692A.126.[C51, §2570; R60, §4193; C73, §3850; C97, §4729; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §12912; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §690.3; C79, 81, §707.3; 1982 Acts, ch 1239, §1]2009 Acts, ch 119, §49, 2013 Acts, ch 30, §200Referred to in 235B.20, 331.802, 671A.2, 692A.101, 692A.102, 692A.126, 902.12, 910.3A
Intentional or reckless dependent adult abuse resulting in death, §235B.20
Definition of forcible felony, §702.11
Sentencing options excluded, see §907.3
707.3ASolicitation to commit murder.1.  A person who commands, entreats, or otherwise attempts to persuade another to commit murder as defined in section 707.1, with the intent that such act be done and under circumstances which corroborate that intent by clear and convincing evidence, solicits another to commit that murder.2.  Renunciation, as provided for in section 705.2, is a defense to a prosecution for solicitation under this section.3.  A person who solicits another to commit murder commits a class “C” felony.2012 Acts, ch 1046, §1707.4Voluntary manslaughter.1.  A person commits voluntary manslaughter when that person causes the death of another person, under circumstances which would otherwise be murder, if the person causing the death acts solely as the result of sudden, violent, and irresistible passion resulting from serious provocation sufficient to excite such passion in a person and there is not an interval between the provocation and the killing in which a person of ordinary reason and temperament would regain control and suppress the impulse to kill.2.  Voluntary manslaughter is a class “C” felony.3.  Voluntary manslaughter is an included offense under an indictment for murder in the first or second degree.4.  For purposes of determining whether a person should register as a sex offender pursuant to the provisions of chapter 692A, the fact finder shall make a determination as provided in section 692A.126.[C51, §2576; R60, §4199; C73, §3856; C97, §4751; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §12919; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §690.10; C79, 81, §707.4]2009 Acts, ch 119, §50, 2013 Acts, ch 90, §224Referred to in 321.208, 331.802, 692A.102, 692A.126, 910.3A707.5Involuntary manslaughter.1.  A person commits involuntary manslaughter punishable as:a.  A class “D” felony when the person unintentionally causes the death of another person by the commission of a public offense other than a forcible felony or escape.b.   An aggravated misdemeanor when the person unintentionally causes the death of another person by the commission of an act in a manner likely to cause death or serious injury.2.  Involuntary manslaughter as defined in this section is an included offense under an indictment for murder in the first or second degree or voluntary manslaughter.3.  For purposes of determining whether a person should register as a sex offender pursuant to the provisions of chapter 692A, the fact finder shall make a determination as provided in section 692A.126.[C51, §2576; R60, §4199; C73, §3856; C97, §4751; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §12919, 12920; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §690.10, 690.11; C79, 81, §707.5]2009 Acts, ch 119, §51, 2013 Acts, ch 90, §225Referred to in 321.208, 321J.10, 331.802, 692A.102, 692A.126, 901C.3, 910.3A707.6Civil liability.1.  A person who injures or causes the death of the aggressor through application of reasonable force in defense of the person’s person or property shall not be held civilly liable for such injury or death.2.  A person who injures or causes the death of the aggressor through application of reasonable force in defense of a second person shall not be held civilly liable for such injury or death.[C79, 81, §707.6]2017 Acts, ch 69, §44707.6AHomicide or serious injury by vehicle.1.  A person commits a class “B” felony when the person unintentionally causes the death of another by operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated, as prohibited by section 321J.2.1A.  Upon a plea or verdict of guilty of a violation of subsection 1, the defendant shall surrender to the court any Iowa license or permit and the court shall forward the license or permit to the department with a copy of the order of conviction. Upon receipt of the order of conviction, the department shall revoke the defendant’s driver’s license or nonresident operating privilege for a period of six years. The defendant shall not be eligible for a temporary restricted license for at least two years after the revocation.1B.  Upon a plea or verdict of guilty of a violation of subsection 1, the court shall order the defendant, at the defendant’s expense, to do the following:a.  Enroll, attend, and satisfactorily complete a course for drinking drivers, as provided in section 321J.22.b.  Submit to evaluation and treatment or rehabilitation services.1C.  A driver’s license or nonresident operating privilege shall not be reinstated until proof of completion of the requirements of subsection 1B is presented to the department.1D.  Where the program is available and appropriate for the defendant, the court shall also order the defendant to participate in a reality education substance abuse prevention program as provided in section 321J.24.2.  A person commits a class “C” felony when the person unintentionally causes the death of another by any of the following means:a.  Driving a motor vehicle in a reckless manner with willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property, in violation of section 321.277.(1)  For the purposes of this paragraph “a”, a person’s use of a hand-held electronic communication device to write, send, or view an electronic message while driving a motor vehicle shall be considered prima facie evidence that the person was driving the motor vehicle in a reckless manner with willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property, in violation of section 321.277.(2)  Subparagraph (1) shall not apply to any of the following:(a)  A member of a public safety agency, as defined in section 34.1, performing official duties.(b)  A health care professional in the course of an emergency situation.(c)  A person receiving safety-related information including emergency, traffic, or weather alerts.(3)  For the purposes of this paragraph “a”, the following definitions apply:(a)  “Electronic message” includes images visible on the screen of a hand-held electronic communication device including a text-based message, an instant message, a portion of electronic mail, an internet site, a social media application, or a game.(b)  “Hand-held electronic communication device” means a mobile telephone or other portable electronic communication device capable of being used to write, send, or view an electronic message. “Hand-held electronic communication device” does not include a voice-operated or hands-free device which allows the user to write, send, or view an electronic message without the use of either hand except to activate or deactivate a feature or function. “Hand-held electronic communication device” does not include a wireless communication device used to transmit or receive data as part of a digital dispatch system. “Hand-held electronic communication device” includes a device which is temporarily mounted inside the motor vehicle, unless the device is a voice-operated or hands-free device.(c)  The terms “write”, “send”, and “view”, with respect to an electronic message, mean the manual entry, transmission, or retrieval of an electronic message, and include playing, browsing, or accessing an electronic message.b.  Eluding or attempting to elude a pursuing law enforcement vehicle, in violation of section 321.279, if the death of the other person directly or indirectly results from the violation.c.  Exceeding a speed limit established or lawfully posted pursuant to section 262.68, section 321.236, subsection 5 or 11, section 321.236, subsection 13, paragraph “a”, section 321.285, section 321.288, subsection 2, paragraph “f”, or section 321.289, 321.290, 321.293, 321.295, or 461A.36, by twenty-five miles per hour or more, if the violation is the proximate cause of the death of the other person. This paragraph does not apply to a member of a public safety agency, as defined in section 34.1, performing official duties.3.  A person commits a class “D” felony when the person unintentionally causes the death of another while drag racing, in violation of section 321.278.4.  A person commits a class “D” felony when the person unintentionally causes a serious injury, as defined in section 702.18, by any of the means described in subsection 1 or 2.5.  As used in this section, “motor vehicle” includes any vehicle defined as a motor vehicle in section 321.1.6.  Except for the purpose of sentencing under section 321J.2, subsections 3, 4, and 5, a conviction or deferral of judgment for a violation of this section, where a violation of section 321J.2 is admitted or proved, shall be treated as a conviction or deferral of judgment for a violation of section 321J.2 for the purposes of chapters 321, 321A, and 321J, and section 907.3, subsection 1.7.  Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 901.5 and 907.3, the court shall not defer judgment or sentencing, or suspend execution of any part of the sentence applicable to the defendant for a violation of subsection 1, or for a violation of subsection 4 involving the operation of a motor vehicle while intoxicated.86 Acts, ch 1220, §41, 89 Acts, ch 211, §1, 90 Acts, ch 1251, §55, 94 Acts, ch 1069, §2, 97 Acts, ch 177, §26 – 28, 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9, 2010 Acts, ch 1097, §12, 2010 Acts, ch 1124, §3, 9, 2011 Acts, ch 34, §145, 2017 Acts, ch 76, §1, 2021 Acts, ch 131, §1Referred to in 321.208, 321.210D, 321.555, 321J.10, 331.802, 707.8, 811.1, 902.12, 907.3, 910.3A, 915.80
See also penalties applicable under §707.5, 707.8, and 708.2
Subsection 2, NEW paragraph c
707.7Feticide.1.  Any person who intentionally terminates a human pregnancy, with the knowledge and voluntary consent of the pregnant person, after the end of the second trimester of the pregnancy where death of the fetus results commits feticide. Feticide is a class “C” felony.2.  Any person who attempts to intentionally terminate a human pregnancy, with the knowledge and voluntary consent of the pregnant person, after the end of the second trimester of the pregnancy where death of the fetus does not result commits attempted feticide. Attempted feticide is a class “D” felony.3.  Any person who terminates a human pregnancy, with the knowledge and voluntary consent of the pregnant person, who is not a person licensed to practice medicine and surgery or osteopathic medicine and surgery under the provisions of chapter 148, commits a class “C” felony.4.  This section shall not apply to the termination of a human pregnancy performed by a physician licensed in this state to practice medicine or surgery or osteopathic medicine or surgery when in the best clinical judgment of the physician the termination is performed to preserve the life or health of the pregnant person or of the fetus and every reasonable medical effort not inconsistent with preserving the life of the pregnant person is made to preserve the life of a viable fetus.[R60, §4221; C73, §3864; C97, §4759; SS15, §4759; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §12973; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §701.1; C79, 81, §707.7]1996 Acts, ch 1077, §1; 2009 Acts, ch 133, §175
Definition of “viability”, §702.20
707.8Nonconsensual termination — serious injury to a human pregnancy.1.  A person who terminates a human pregnancy without the consent of the pregnant person during the commission of a forcible felony is guilty of a class “B” felony.2.  A person who terminates a human pregnancy without the consent of the pregnant person during the commission of a felony or felonious assault is guilty of a class “C” felony.3.  A person who intentionally terminates a human pregnancy without the knowledge and voluntary consent of the pregnant person is guilty of a class “C” felony.4.  A person who unintentionally terminates a human pregnancy by any of the means provided pursuant to section 707.6A, subsection 1, is guilty of a class “C” felony.5.  A person who by force or intimidation procures the consent of the pregnant person to a termination of a human pregnancy is guilty of a class “C” felony.6.  A person who unintentionally terminates a human pregnancy while drag racing in violation of section 321.278 is guilty of a class “D” felony.7.  A person who unintentionally terminates a human pregnancy without the knowledge and voluntary consent of the pregnant person by the commission of an act in a manner likely to cause the termination of or serious injury to a human pregnancy is guilty of an aggravated misdemeanor.8.  A person commits an aggravated misdemeanor when the person intentionally causes serious injury to a human pregnancy by the commission of an act in a manner likely to cause the termination of or serious injury to a human pregnancy.9.  A person commits an aggravated misdemeanor when the person unintentionally causes serious injury to a human pregnancy by any of the means described in section 707.6A, subsection 1.10.  A person commits a serious misdemeanor when the person unintentionally causes serious injury to a human pregnancy by the commission of an act in a manner likely to cause the termination of or serious injury to the human pregnancy.11.  For the purposes of this section “serious injury to a human pregnancy” means, relative to the human pregnancy, disabling mental illness, or bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious permanent disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ, and includes but is not limited to skull fractures, rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures of the long bones.12.  As used in this section, actions which cause the termination of or serious injury to a pregnancy do not apply to any of the following:a.  An act or omission of the pregnant person.b.  A termination of or a serious injury to a pregnancy which is caused by the performance of an approved medical procedure performed by a person licensed in this state to practice medicine and surgery or osteopathic medicine and surgery, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy and with or without the voluntary consent of the pregnant person when circumstances preclude the pregnant person from providing consent.c.  An act committed in self-defense or in defense of another person or any other act committed if legally justified or excused.[C79, 81, §707.8]1996 Acts, ch 1077, §2707.8APartial-birth abortion prohibited — exceptions — penalties.1.  As used in this section, unless the context otherwise requires:a.  “Abortion” means abortion as defined in section 146.1.b.  “Fetus” means a human fetus.c.  “Partial-birth abortion” means an abortion in which a person partially vaginally delivers a living fetus before killing the fetus and completing the delivery.d.  “Vaginally delivers a living fetus before killing the fetus” means deliberately and intentionally delivering into the vagina a living fetus or a substantial portion of a living fetus for the purpose of performing a procedure the person knows will kill the fetus, and then killing the fetus.2.  A person shall not knowingly perform or attempt to perform a partial-birth abortion. This prohibition shall not apply to a partial-birth abortion that is necessary to save the life of the mother whose life is endangered by a physical disorder, physical illness, or physical injury.3.  This section shall not be construed to create a right to an abortion.4.a.  The mother on whom a partial-birth abortion is performed, the father of the fetus, or, if the mother is less than eighteen years of age or unmarried at the time of the partial-birth abortion, a maternal grandparent of the fetus may bring an action against a person violating subsection 2 to obtain appropriate relief, unless the pregnancy resulted from the plaintiff’s criminal conduct or the plaintiff consented to the partial-birth abortion.b.  In an action brought under this subsection, appropriate relief may include any of the following:(1)  Statutory damages which are equal to three times the cost of the partial-birth abortion.(2)  Compensatory damages for all injuries, psychological and physical, resulting from violation of subsection 2.5.  A person who violates subsection 2 is guilty of a class “C” felony.6.  A mother upon whom a partial-birth abortion is performed shall not be prosecuted for violation of subsection 2 or for conspiracy to violate subsection 2.7.a.  A licensed physician subject to the authority of the board of medicine who is accused of a violation of subsection 2 may seek a hearing before the board on whether the physician’s conduct was necessary to save the life of the mother whose life was endangered by a physical disorder, physical illness, or physical injury.b.  The board’s findings concerning the physician’s conduct are admissible at the criminal trial of the physician. Upon a motion of the physician, the court shall delay the beginning of the trial for not more than thirty days to permit the hearing before the board of medicine to take place.1998 Acts, ch 1009, §1; 2007 Acts, ch 10, §181707.9Murder of fetus aborted alive.A person who intentionally kills a viable fetus aborted alive shall be guilty of a class “B” felony.[C79, 81, §707.9]
Definition of “viability”, §702.20
707.10Duty to preserve the life of the fetus.A person who performs or induces a termination of a human pregnancy and who willfully fails to exercise that degree of professional skill, care, and diligence available to preserve the life and health of a viable fetus shall be guilty of a serious misdemeanor.[C79, 81, §707.10]
Definition of “viability”, §702.20
707.11Attempt to commit murder.1.  A person commits the offense of attempt to commit murder when, with the intent to cause the death of another person and not under circumstances which would justify the person’s actions, the person does any act by which the person expects to set in motion a force or chain of events which will cause or result in the death of the other person.2.  Attempt to commit murder is a class “B” felony.3.  It is not a defense to an indictment for attempt to commit murder that the acts proved could not have caused the death of any person, provided that the actor intended to cause the death of some person by so acting, and the actor’s expectations were not unreasonable in the light of the facts known to the actor.4.  For purposes of determining whether the person should register as a sex offender pursuant to the provisions of chapter 692A, the fact finder shall make a determination as provided in section 692A.126.5.a.  As used in this subsection, “peace officer” means the same as defined in section 801.4.b.  For purposes of determining the category of sentence under section 903A.2, the fact finder shall determine whether the attempt to commit murder was committed against a peace officer, with the knowledge that the person against whom the attempt to commit murder was committed was a peace officer acting in the officer’s official capacity. c.  If the fact finder determines the attempt to commit murder was against a peace officer as described in paragraph “b”, the person shall serve one hundred percent of the term of confinement imposed and shall be denied parole, work release, or other early release.[C51, §2591, 2596; R60, §4214, 4219; C73, §3872, 3877; C97, §4768, 4773, 4797; S13, §4768; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §12915, 12918, 12962; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §690.6, 690.9, 697.2; C79, 81, §707.11; 1982 Acts, ch 1239, §2]2009 Acts, ch 119, §52, 2013 Acts, ch 90, §226, 2014 Acts, ch 1026, §134, 2017 Acts, ch 122, §12, 2018 Acts, ch 1026, §171Referred to in 692A.102, 692A.126, 902.12, 903A.2