Actions may be brought within the times herein limited, respectively, after their causes accrue, and not afterwards, except when otherwise specially declared:
1. Penalties or forfeitures under ordinance. Those to enforce the payment of a penalty or forfeiture under an ordinance, within one year.
2. Injuries to person or reputation--relative rights--statute penalty. Those founded on injuries to the person or reputation, including injuries to relative rights, whether based on contract or tort, or for a statute penalty, within two years.
2A. With respect to products.
a. Those founded on the death of a person or injuries to the person or property brought against the manufacturer, assembler, designer, supplier of specifications, seller, lessor, or distributor of a product based upon an alleged defect in the design, inspection, testing, manufacturing, formulation, marketing, packaging, warning, labeling of the product, or any other alleged defect or failure of whatever nature or kind, based on the theories of strict liability in tort, negligence, or breach of an implied warranty shall not be commenced more than fifteen years after the product was first purchased, leased, bailed, or installed for use or consumption unless expressly warranted for a longer period of time by the manufacturer, assembler, designer, supplier of specifications, seller, lessor, or distributor of the product. This subsection shall not affect the time during which a person found liable may seek and obtain contribution or indemnity from another person whose actual fault caused a product to be defective. This subsection shall not apply if the manufacturer, assembler, designer, supplier of specifications, seller, lessor, or distributor of the product intentionally misrepresents facts about the product or fraudulently conceals information about the product and that conduct was a substantial cause of the claimant's harm.
b. (1) The fifteen-year limitation in paragraph "a" shall not apply to the time period in which to discover a disease that is latent and caused by exposure to a harmful material, in which event the cause of action shall be deemed to have accrued when the disease and such disease's cause have been made known to the person or at the point the person should have been aware of the disease and such disease's cause. This subsection shall not apply to cases governed by section 614.1, subsection 11.
(2) As used in this paragraph, "harmful material" means silicon gel breast implants, which were implanted prior to July 12, 1992; and chemical substances commonly known as asbestos, dioxins, tobacco, or polychlorinated biphenyls, whether alone or as part of any product; or any substance which is determined to present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment by the United States environmental protection agency pursuant to the federal Toxic Substance Control Act, 15 U.S.C. § 2601 et seq., or by this state, if that risk is regulated by the United States environmental protection agency or this state.
3. Against sheriff or other public officer. Those against a sheriff or other public officer for the nonpayment of money collected on execution within three years of collection.
4. Unwritten contracts--injuries to property--fraud--other actions. Those founded on unwritten contracts, those brought for injuries to property, or for relief on the ground of fraud in cases heretofore solely cognizable in a court of chancery, and all other actions not otherwise provided for in this respect, within five years, except as provided by subsections 8 and 10.
5. Written contracts--judgments of courts not of record--recovery of real property. Those founded on written contracts, or on judgments of any courts except those provided for in the next subsection, and those brought for the recovery of real property, within ten years.
6. Judgments of courts of record. Those founded on a judgment of a court of record, whether of this or of any other of the United States, or of the federal courts of the United States, within twenty years, except that a time period limitation shall not apply to an action to recover a judgment for child support, spousal support, or a judgment of distribution of marital assets.
7. Judgment quieting title. No action shall be brought to set aside a judgment or decree quieting title to real estate unless the same shall be commenced within ten years from and after the rendition thereof.
8. Wages. Those founded on claims for wages or for a liability or penalty for failure to pay wages, within two years.
a. Except as provided in paragraph "b", those founded on injuries to the person or wrongful death against any physician and surgeon, osteopath, osteopathic physician and surgeon, dentist, podiatric physician, optometrist, pharmacist, chiropractor, physician assistant, or nurse, licensed under chapter 147, or a hospital licensed under chapter 135B, arising out of patient care, within two years after the date on which the claimant knew, or through the use of reasonable diligence should have known, or received notice in writing of the existence of, the injury or death for which damages are sought in the action, whichever of the dates occurs first, but in no event shall any action be brought more than six years after the date on which occurred the act or omission or occurrence alleged in the action to have been the cause of the injury or death unless a foreign object unintentionally left in the body caused the injury or death.
b. An action subject to paragraph "a" and brought on behalf of a minor who was under the age of eight years when the act, omission, or occurrence alleged in the action occurred shall be commenced no later than the minor's tenth birthday or as provided in paragraph "a", whichever is later.
10. Secured interest in farm products. Those founded on a secured interest in farm products, within two years from the date of sale of the farm products against the secured interest of the creditor.
11. Improvements to real property. In addition to limitations contained elsewhere in this section, an action arising out of the unsafe or defective condition of an improvement to real property based on tort and implied warranty and for contribution and indemnity, and founded on injury to property, real or personal, or injury to the person or wrongful death, shall not be brought more than fifteen years after the date on which occurred the act or omission of the defendant alleged in the action to have been the cause of the injury or death. However, this subsection does not bar an action against a person solely in the person's capacity as an owner, occupant, or operator of an improvement to real property.
12. Sexual abuse or sexual exploitation by a counselor or therapist. An action for damages for injury suffered as a result of sexual abuse, as defined in section 709.1, by a counselor or therapist, as defined in section 709.15, or as a result of sexual exploitation by a counselor or therapist, shall be brought within five years of the date the victim was last treated by the counselor or therapist.
13. Public bonds or obligations. Those founded on the cancellation, transfer, redemption, or replacement of public bonds or obligations by an issuer, trustee, transfer agent, registrar, depository, paying agent, or other agent of the public bonds or obligations, within eleven years of the cancellation, transfer, redemption, or replacement of the public bonds or obligations.
[C51, § 1659; R60, § 1075, 1865, 2740; C73, § 486, 2529; C97, § 3447; S13, § 2963-g, 3447; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 11007; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 614.1]
83 Acts, ch 69, § 1, 2; 86 Acts, ch 1120, § 1; 91 Acts, ch 130, § 3; 92 Acts, ch 1199, § 1; 93 Acts, ch 89, §3; 95 Acts, ch 108, §21; 97 Acts, ch 175, § 235; 97 Acts, ch 197, §5, 6, 16; 98 Acts, ch 1100, §78
Referred to in § 222.82, 614.8, 715B.4, 910.15
Subsection 2A applies to actions filed after July 1, 1997; preservation of causes of action accrued as of July 1, 1997; 97 Acts, ch 197, §16
1997 amendment to subsection 9 applies to all causes of action accruing on or after July 1, 1997, and to all causes of action accruing before July 1, 1997, and filed after July 1, 1999; 97 Acts, ch 197, § 16
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